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Ind AS - 016 - B. Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) - Companies Law - Ind AS - 016 - Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 16 (This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles.) Objective 1 The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for so that users of the financial statements can discern information about an entity s investment in its and the change .....

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and Discontinued Operations. (b) biological assets related to agricultural activity other than bearer plants (See Ind AS 41, Agriculture). This Standard applies to bearer plants but it does not apply to the produce on bearer plants. (c) the recognition and measurement of exploration and evaluation assets (see Ind AS 106, Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources). (d) mineral rights and mineral reserves such as oil, natural gas and similar non-regenerative resources. However, this Stan .....

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5 An entity accounting for investment property in accordance with Ind AS 40, Investment Property, shall use the cost model in this Standard. Definitions 6 The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified: A bearer plant is a living plant that: (a) is used in the production or supply of agricultural produce; (b) is expected to bear produce for more than one period; and (c) has a remote likelihood of being sold as agricultural produce, except for incidental scrap sales. C .....

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ased Payment. Depreciable amount is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value. Depreciation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an asset over its useful life. Entity-specific value is the present value of the cash flows an entity expects to arise from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life or expects to incur when settling a liability. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell .....

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s the higher of an asset s fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. The residual value of an asset is the estimated amount that an entity would currently obtain from disposal of the asset, after deducting the estimated costs of disposal, if the asset were already of the age and in the condition expected at the end of its useful life. Useful life is: (a) the period over which an asset is expected to be available for use by an entity; or (b) the number of production or similar units exp .....

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is Standard does not prescribe the unit of measure for recognition, ie what constitutes an item of . Thus, judgement is required in applying the recognition criteria to an entity s specific circumstances. It may be appropriate to aggregate individually insignificant items, such as moulds, tools and dies, and to apply the criteria to the aggregate value. 10 An entity evaluates under this recognition principle all its costs at the time they are incurred. These costs include costs incurred initiall .....

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ure economic benefits from related assets in excess of what could be derived had those items not been acquired. For example, a chemical manufacturer may install new chemical handling processes to comply with environmental requirements for the production and storage of dangerous chemicals; related plant enhancements are recognised as an asset because without them the entity is unable to manufacture and sell chemicals. However, the resulting carrying amount of such an asset and related assets is r .....

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as for the repairs and maintenance of the item of . 13 Parts of some items of may require replacement at regular intervals. For example, a furnace may require relining after a specified number of hours of use, or aircraft interiors such as seats and galleys may require replacement several times during the life of the airframe. Items of may also be acquired to make a less frequently recurring replacement, such as replacing the interior walls of a building, or to make a nonrecurring replacement. .....

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lts regardless of whether parts of the item are replaced. When each major inspection is performed, its cost is recognised in the carrying amount of the item of as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. Any remaining carrying amount of the cost of the previous inspection (as distinct from physical parts) is derecognised. This occurs regardless of whether the cost of the previous inspection was identified in the transaction in which the item was acquired or constructed. If necess .....

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ctly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. (c) the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located, the obligation for which an entity incurs either when the item is acquired or as a consequence of having used the item during a particular period for purposes other than to produce inventories during that period. 17 Examples o .....

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d when testing equipment); and (f) professional fees. 18 An entity applies Ind AS 2, Inventories, to the costs of obligations for dismantling, removing and restoring the site on which an item is located that are incurred during a particular period as a consequence of having used the item to produce inventories during that period. The obligations for costs accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 2 or Ind AS 16 are recognised and measured in accordance with Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabil .....

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the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. Therefore, costs incurred in using or redeploying an item are not included in the carrying amount of that item. For example, the following costs are not included in the carrying amount of an item of : (a) costs incurred while an item capable of operating in the manner intended by management has yet to be brought into use or is operated at less than full capacity; (b) initial operating lo .....

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For example, income may be earned through using a building site as a car park until construction starts. Because incidental operations are not necessary to bring an item to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management, the income and related expenses of incidental operations are recognised in profit or loss and included in their respective classifications of income and expense. 22 The cost of a self-constructed asset is determined u .....

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, establishes criteria for the recognition of interest as a component of the carrying amount of a self -constructed item of . 22A Bearer plants are accounted for in the same way as self-constructed items of before they are in the location and condition necessary to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. Consequently, references to construction in this Standard should be read as covering activities that are necessary to cultivate the bearer plants before they are in the loc .....

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etary asset or assets, or a combination of monetary and nonmonetary assets. The following discussion refers simply to an exchange of one non-monetary asset for another, but it also applies to all exchanges described in the preceding sentence. The cost of such an item of is measured at fair value unless (a) the exchange transaction lacks commercial substance or (b) the fair value of neither the asset received nor the asset given up is reliably measurable. The acquired item is measured in this way .....

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of the asset received differs from the configuration of the cash flows of the asset transferred; or (b) the entity-specific value of the portion of the entity s operations affected by the transaction changes as a result of the exchange; and (c) the difference in (a) or (b) is significant relative to the fair value of the assets exchanged. For the purpose of determining whether an exchange transaction has commercial substance, the entity-specific value of the portion of the entity s operations a .....

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air value of either the asset received or the asset given up, then the fair value of the asset given up is used to measure the cost of the asset received unless the fair value of the asset received is more clearly evident. 27 The cost of an item of held by a lessee under a finance lease is determined in accordance with Ind AS 17. 28 [Refer Appendix 1]. Measurement after recognition 29 An entity shall choose either the cost model in paragraph 30 or the revaluation model in paragraph 31 as its acc .....

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ent losses. Revaluations shall be made with sufficient regularity to ensure that the carrying amount does not differ materially from that which would be determined using fair value at the end of the reporting period. 32 [Refer Appendix 1]. 33 [Refer Appendix 1]. 34 The frequency of revaluations depends upon the changes in fair values of the items of being revalued. When the fair value of a revalued asset differs materially from its carrying amount, a further revaluation is required. Some items o .....

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s adjusted in a manner that is consistent with the revaluation of the carrying amount of the asset. For example, the gross carrying amount may be restated by reference to observable market data or it may be restated proportionately to the change in the carrying amount. The accumulated depreciation at the date of the revaluation is adjusted to equal the difference between the gross carrying amount and the carrying amount of the asset after taking into account accumulated impairment losses; or (b) .....

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lasses: (a) land; (b) land and buildings; (c) machinery; (d) ships; (e) aircraft; (f) motor vehicles; (g) furniture and fixtures; (h) office equipment; and (i) bearer plants. 38 The items within a class of are revalued simultaneously to avoid selective revaluation of assets and the reporting of amounts in the financial statements that are a mixture of costs and values as at different dates. However, a class of assets may be revalued on a rolling basis provided revaluation of the class of assets .....

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s decreased as a result of a revaluation, the decrease shall be recognised in profit or loss. However, the decrease shall be recognised in other comprehensive income to the extent of any credit balance existing in the revaluation surplus in respect of that asset. The decrease recognised in other comprehensive income reduces the amount accumulated in equity under the heading of revaluation surplus. 41 The revaluation surplus included in equity in respect of an item of may be transferred directly .....

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made through profit or loss. 42 The effects of taxes on income, if any, resulting from the revaluation of are recognised and disclosed in accordance with Ind AS 12, Income Taxes. Depreciation 43 Each part of an item of with a cost that is significant in relation to the total cost of the item shall be depreciated separately. 44 An entity allocates the amount initially recognised in respect of an item of to its significant parts and depreciates separately each such part. For example, it may be app .....

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useful life and the depreciation method of another significant part of that same item. Such parts may be grouped in determining the depreciation charge. 46 To the extent that an entity depreciates separately some parts of an item of , it also depreciates separately the remainder of the item. The remainder consists of the parts of the item that are individually not significant. If an entity has varying expectations for these parts, approximation techniques may be necessary to depreciate the remai .....

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s, the future economic benefits embodied in an asset are absorbed in producing other assets. In this case, the depreciation charge constitutes part of the cost of the other asset and is included in its carrying amount. For example, the depreciation of manufacturing plant and equipment is included in the costs of conversion of inventories (see Ind AS 2). Similarly, depreciation of used for development activities may be included in the cost of an intangible asset recognised in accordance with Ind .....

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52 Depreciation is recognised even if the fair value of the asset exceeds its carrying amount, as long as the asset s residual value does not exceed its carrying amount. Repair and maintenance of an asset do not negate the need to depreciate it. 53 The depreciable amount of an asset is determined after deducting its residual value. In practice, the residual value of an asset is often insignificant and therefore immaterial in the calculation of the depreciable amount. 54 The residual value of an .....

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the asset is classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with Ind AS 105 and the date that the asset is derecognised. Therefore, depreciation does not cease when the asset becomes idle or is retired from active use unless the asset is fully depreciated. However, under usage methods of depreciation the depreciation charge can be zero while there is no production. 56 The future economic benefits embodied in an asset are consumed b .....

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r and tear, which depends on operational factors such as the number of shifts for which the asset is to be used and the repair and maintenance programme, and the care and maintenance of the asset while idle. (c) technical or commercial obsolescence arising from changes or improvements in production, or from a change in the market demand for the product or service output of the asset. Expected future reductions in the selling price of an item that was produced using an asset could indicate the ex .....

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on of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset. Therefore, the useful life of an asset may be shorter than its economic life. The estimation of the useful life of the asset is a matter of judgement based on the experience of the entity with similar assets. 58 Land and buildings are separable assets and are accounted for separately, even when they are acquired together. With some exceptions, such as quarries and sites used for landfill, land has an unlimited useful life and therefore is .....

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hich case it is depreciated in a manner that reflects the benefits to be derived from it. Depreciation method 60 The depreciation method used shall reflect the pattern in which the asset s future economic benefits are expected to be consumed by the entity. 61 The depreciation method applied to an asset shall be reviewed at least at each financial year-end and, if there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset, the .....

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sset s residual value does not change. The diminishing balance method results in a decreasing charge over the useful life. The units of production method results in a charge based on the expected use or output. The entity selects the method that most closely reflects the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset. That method is applied consistently from period to period unless there is a change in the expected pattern of consumption of those future eco .....

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n, which has no bearing upon the way in which an asset is consumed. Impairment 63 To determine whether an item of is impaired, an entity applies Ind AS 36, Impairment of Assets. That Standard explains how an entity reviews the carrying amount of its assets, how it determines the recoverable amount of an asset, and when it recognises, or reverses the recognition of, an impairment loss. 64 [Refer Appendix 1] Compensation for impairment 65 Compensation from third parties for items of that were impa .....

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with this Standard; (c) compensation from third parties for items of that were impaired, lost or given up is included in determining profit or loss when it becomes receivable; and (d) the cost of items of restored, purchased or constructed as replacements is determined in accordance with this Standard. Derecognition 67 The carrying amount of an item of shall be derecognised: (a) on disposal; or (b) when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. 68 The gain or loss arisin .....

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ch assets shall be recognised as revenue in accordance with Ind AS 18, Revenue. Ind AS 105 does not apply when assets that are held for sale in the ordinary course of business are transferred to inventories.] 2[69 The disposal of an item of may occur in a variety of ways (eg by sale, by entering into a finance lease or by donation). In determining the date of disposal of an item, an entity applies the criteria in Ind AS 18 for recognising revenue from the sale of goods. Ind AS 17 applies to disp .....

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replaced part was at the time it was acquired or constructed. 71 The gain or loss arising from the derecognition of an item of shall be determined as the difference between the net disposal proceeds, if any, and the carrying amount of the item. 3[72 The consideration receivable on disposal of an item of is recognised initially at its fair value. If payment for the item is deferred, the consideration received is recognised initially at the cash price equivalent. The difference between the nomina .....

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ed impairment losses) at the beginning and end of the period; and (e) a reconciliation of the carrying amount at the beginning and end of the period showing: (i) additions; (ii) assets classified as held for sale or included in a disposal group classified as held for sale in accordance with Ind AS 105 and other disposals; (iii) acquisitions through business combinations; (iv) increases or decreases resulting from revaluations under paragraphs 31, 39 and 40 and from impairment losses recognised o .....

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eporting entity; and (ix) other changes. 74 The financial statements shall also disclose: (a) the existence and amounts of restrictions on title, and pledged as security for liabilities; (b) the amount of expenditures recognised in the carrying amount of an item of in the course of its construction; (c) the amount of contractual commitments for the acquisition of ; and (d) if it is not disclosed separately in the statement of profit and loss, the amount of compensation from third parties for ite .....

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o disclose: (a) depreciation, whether recognised in profit or loss or as a part of the cost of other assets, during a period; and (b) accumulated depreciation at the end of the period. 76 In accordance with Ind AS 8 an entity discloses the nature and effect of a change in an accounting estimate that has an effect in the current period or is expected to have an effect in subsequent periods. For , such disclosure may arise from changes in estimates with respect to: (a) residual values; (b) the est .....

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the cost model; and (f) the revaluation surplus, indicating the change for the period and any restrictions on the distribution of the balance to shareholders. 78 In accordance with Ind AS 36 an entity discloses information on impaired in addition to the information required by paragraph 73(e)(iv)-(vi). 79 Users of financial statements may also find the following information relevant to their needs: (a) the carrying amount of temporarily idle ; (b) the gross carrying amount of any fully deprecia .....

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dismantle, remove and restore items of . In this Appendix such obligations are referred to as decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities . Under Ind AS 16, the cost of an item of includes the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located, the obligation for which an entity incurs either when the item is acquired or as a consequence of having used the item during a particular period for purposes other than to produce in .....

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th Ind AS 16; and (b) recognised as a liability in accordance with Ind AS 37. For example, a decommissioning, restoration or similar liability may exist for decommissioning a plant, rehabilitating environmental damage in extractive industries, or removing equipment. Issue 3 This Appendix addresses how the effect of the following events that change the measurement of an existing decommissioning, restoration or similar liability should be accounted for: (a) a change in the estimated outflow of res .....

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t result from changes in the estimated timing or amount of the outflow of resources embodying economic benefits required to settle the obligation, or a change in the discount rate, shall be accounted for in accordance with paragraphs 5-7 below. 5 If the related asset is measured using the cost model: (a) subject to (b), changes in the liability shall be added to, or deducted from, the cost of the related asset in the current period. (b) the amount deducted from the cost of the asset shall not ex .....

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mpairment loss, in accordance with Ind AS 36. 6 If the related asset is measured using the revaluation model: (a) changes in the liability alter the revaluation surplus or deficit previously recognised on that asset, so that: (i) a decrease in the liability shall (subject to (b)) be recognised in other comprehensive income and increase the revaluation surplus within equity, except that it shall be recognised in profit or loss to the extent that it reverses a revaluation deficit on the asset that .....

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shall be recognised immediately in profit or loss. (c) a change in the liability is an indication that the asset may have to be revalued in order to ensure that the carrying amount does not differ materially from that which would be determined using fair value at the end of the reporting period. Any such revaluation shall be taken into account in determining the amounts to be recognised in profit or loss or in other comprehensive income under (a). If a revaluation is necessary, all assets of th .....

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nges in the liability shall be recognised in profit or loss as they occur. This applies under both the cost model and the revaluation model. 8 The periodic unwinding of the discount shall be recognised in profit or loss as a finance cost as it occurs. Capitalisation under Ind AS 23 is not permitted. Appendix B This appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS. Stripping Costs in the Production Phase of a Surface Mine Background 1. In surface mining operations, entities may find it necessary to rem .....

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ontinue to remove overburden and to incur stripping costs during the production phase of the mine. 4. The material removed when stripping in the production phase will not necessarily be a total waste; often it will be a combination of ore and waste. The ratio of ore to waste can range from uneconomic low grade to profitable high grade. Removal of material with a low ratio of ore to waste may produce some usable material, which can be used to produce inventory. This removal might also provide acc .....

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Scope 6. This Appendix applies to waste removal costs that are incurred in surface mining activity during the production phase of the mine ( production stripping costs ). Issues 7. This Appendix addresses the following issues: (a) recognition of production stripping costs as an asset; (b) initial measurement of the stripping activity asset; and (c) subsequent measurement of the stripping activity asset. Accounting Principles Recognition of production stripping costs as an asset 8. To the extent .....

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f, all of the following are met: (a) it is probable that the future economic benefit (improved access to the ore body) associated with the stripping activity will flow to the entity; (b) the entity can identify the component of the ore body for which access has been improved; and (c) the costs relating to the stripping activity associated with that component can be measured reliably. 10. The stripping activity asset shall be accounted for as an addition to, or as an enhancement of, an existing a .....

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cost, this being the accumulation of costs directly incurred to perform the stripping activity that improves access to the identified component of ore, plus an allocation of directly attributable overhead costs. Examples of the types of costs that would be included as directly attributable overhead costs include an allocation of salary costs of the mine supervisor overseeing that component of the mine, and the rental costs of any equipment that was hired specifically to perform the stripping act .....

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ty asset and the inventory produced are not separately identifiable, the entity shall allocate the production stripping costs between the inventory produced and the stripping activity asset by using an allocation basis that is based on a relevant production measure. This production measure shall be calculated for the identified component of the ore body, and shall be used as a benchmark to identify the extent to which the additional activity of creating a future benefit has taken place. Examples .....

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appropriate because it is not closely linked to the activity taking place. Furthermore, if the current sales price of the relevant material is used in determining the allocation basis, the same current sales price will be applied to the volume of the mineral in both the extracted ore and the identified component. Hence, the relevant variable will be the volume of mineral in both the extracted ore and the identified component, i.e., the current sales price will not change the allocation basis. Ap .....

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t or its revalued amount less depreciation or amortisation and less impairment losses, in the same way as the existing asset of which it is a part. 15. The stripping activity asset shall be depreciated or amortised on a systematic basis, over the expected useful life of the identified component of the ore body that becomes more accessible as a result of the stripping activity. The units of production method shall be applied unless another method is more appropriate. 16. The expected useful life .....

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nts the final part of the ore body to be extracted. Appendix C References to matters contained in other Indian Accounting Standards This Appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS. This appendix lists the appendices which are part of other Indian Accounting Standards and make reference to Ind AS 16, . 4[1 Appendix A, Service Concession Arrangements contained in Ind AS 11, Construction Contracts.] 5[2 Appendix B, Service Concession Arrangements: Disclosures contained in Ind AS 11, Construction Co .....

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isting Decommissioning, Restoration and Similar Liabilities and IFRIC 20, Stripping Costs in the Production Phase of a Surface Mine issued by the International Accounting Standards Board. Comparison with IAS 16, , IFRIC 1 and IFRIC 20 1 The transitional provisions given in IAS 16 and IFRIC 1 and IFRIC 20 have not been given in Ind AS 16, since all transitional provisions related to Ind ASs, wherever considered appropriate have been included in Ind AS 101, First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting .....

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t of an item of by the amount of government grant received in respect of such an item, which is permitted in IAS 20. However, to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 16, this paragraph number is retained in Ind AS 16. 4 The following paragraph numbers appear as Deleted in IAS 16. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 16, the paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 16: (i) paragraphs 32-33 (ii) paragraph 64 (iii) paragraph 77(c)-(d) 5 Paragraphs 5 of Ind AS .....

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