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Valuation of Inventories [w.e.f 30-3-2016]

AS - 02 - Rule - B. Accounting Standard (AS) - Companies Law - AS - 02 - [W.e.f. 30-3-2016 - See Notification no. 364E dated 30-3-2016] Accounting Standard (AS) 2 Valuation of Inventories (This Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold italic type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold italic type indicate the main principles. This Accounting Standard should be read in the context of its objective and the General Instructions contained in part A of the Annexure .....

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ruction contracts, including directly related service contracts (see Accounting Standard (AS) 7, Construction Contracts); (b) work in progress arising in the ordinary course of business of service providers; (c) shares, debentures and other financial instruments held as stock-in-trade; and (d) producers inventories of livestock, agricultural and forest products, and mineral oils, ores and gases to the extent that they are measured at net realisable value in accordance with well established pract .....

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s 3. The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified: 3.1 Inventories are assets: (a) held for sale in the ordinary course of business; (b) in the process of production for such sale; or (c) in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services. 3.2 Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make .....

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and standby equipment which meet the definition of property, plant and equipment as per AS 10, Property, Plant and Equipment. Such items are accounted for in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS) 10, Property, Plant and Equipment. Measurement of Inventories 5. Inventories should be valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of Inventories 6. The cost of inventories should comprise all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories t .....

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ts directly related to the units of production, such as direct labour. They also include a systematic allocation of fixed and variable production overheads that are incurred in converting materials into finished goods. Fixed production overheads are those indirect costs of production that remain relatively constant regardless of the volume of production, such as depreciation and maintenance of factory buildings and the cost of factory management and administration. Variable production overheads .....

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pacity resulting from planned maintenance. The actual level of production may be used if it approximates normal capacity. The amount of fixed production overheads allocated to each unit of production is not increased as a consequence of low production or idle plant. Un allocated overheads are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred. In periods of abnormally high production, the amount of fixed production overheads allocated to each unit of production is decreased so tha .....

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a rational and consistent basis. The allocation may be based, for example, on the relative sales value of each product either at the stage in the production process when the products become separately identifiable, or at the completion of production. Most by-products as well as scrap or waste materials, by their nature, are immaterial. When this is the case, they are often measured at net realisable value and this value is deducted from the cost of the main product. As a result, the carrying am .....

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o bringing the inventories to their present location and condition and are, therefore, usually not included in the cost of inventories. Exclusions from the Cost of Inventories 13. In determining the cost of inventories in accordance with paragraph 6, it is appropriate to exclude certain costs and recognise them as expenses in the period in which they are incurred. Examples of such costs are: (a) abnormal amounts of wasted materials, labour, or other production costs; (b) storage costs, unless th .....

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ication of cost means that specific costs are attributed to identified items of inventory. This is an appropriate treatment for items that are segregated for a specific project, regardless of whether they have been purchased or produced. However, when there are large numbers of items of inventory which are ordinarily interchangeable, specific identification of costs is inappropriate since, in such circumstances, an enterprise could obtain predetermined effects on the net profit or loss for the p .....

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other than those for which specific identification of individual costs is appropriate. The formula used in determining the cost of an item of inventory needs to be selected with a view to providing the fairest possible approximation to the cost incurred in bringing the item to its present location and condition. The FIFO formula assumes that the items of inventory which were purchased or produced first are consumed or sold first, and consequently the items remaining in inventory at the end of t .....

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asurement of the cost of inventories, such as the standard cost method or the retail method, may be used for convenience if the results approximate the actual cost. Standard costs take into account normal levels of consumption of materials and supplies, labour, efficiency and capacity utilisation. They are regularly reviewed and, if necessary, revised in the light of current conditions. 19. The retail method is often used in the retail trade for measuring inventories of large numbers of rapidly .....

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inventories are damaged, if they have become wholly or partially obsolete, or if their selling prices have declined. The cost of inventories may also not be recoverable if the estimated costs of completion or the estimated costs necessary to make the sale have increased. The practice of writing down inventories below cost to net realisable value is consistent with the view that assets should not be carried in excess of amounts expected to be realised from their sale or use. 21. Inventories are u .....

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inventory, for example, finished goods, or all the inventories in a particular business segment. 22. Estimates of net realisable value are based on the most reliable evidence available at the time the estimates are made as to the amount the inventories are expected to realise. These estimates take into consideration fluctuations of price or cost directly relating to events occurring after the balance sheet date to the extent that such events confirm the conditions existing at the balance sheet d .....

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d and contingent losses on firm purchase contracts are dealt with in accordance with the principles enunciated in Accounting Standard (AS) 4, Contingencies and Events Occurring After the Balance Sheet Date. 24. Materials and other supplies held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. However, when there has been a decline in the price of materials and it is estim .....

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the total carrying amount of inventories and its classification appropriate to the enterprise. 27. Information about the carrying amounts held in different classifications of inventories and the extent of the changes in these assets is useful to financial statement users. Common classifications of inventories are: (a) Raw materials and components (b) Work-in-progress (c) Finished goods (d) Stock-in-trade (in respect of goods acquired for trading) (e) Stores and spares (f) Loose tools (g) Others .....

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alia, cover accounting for livestock. Till the time, the Accounting Standard on Agriculture is issued, accounting for livestock meeting the definition of Property, Plant and Equipment, will be covered as per AS 10 (Revised), Property, Plant and Equipment. 2 Shares, debentures and other securities held as stock-in-trade (i.e., for sale in the ordinary course of business) are not investments as defined in this Standard. However, the manner in which they are accounted for and disclosed in the fina .....

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ct of shares, debentures and other securities held as stock-in-trade, the cost of stocks disposed of is determined by applying an appropriate cost formula (e.g. first-in, first-out, average cost, etc.). These cost formulae are the same as those specified in Accounting Standard (AS) 2, in respect of Valuation of Inventories. * As defined in AS 21, Consolidated Financial Statements * Paragraph 23 shall not apply to any scheme of amalgamation approved under the Companies Act, 2013. * Paragraph 42 s .....

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