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Construction Contracts [Omitted w.e.f. 1st day of April, 2018]

Ind AS - 011 (new) - Rules - B. Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) - Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 - Ind AS - 011 (new) - 2[*****] ******************* Notes:- 1. Inserted vide F. No. 01/01/2009-CL-V(Part) - Dated 30-3-2016 2. Omitted vide F. No. 01/01/2009-CL-V(Part VI) - Dated 28-03-2018, w.e.f. 1st day of April, 2018, before it was read as, "1[Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 11 Construction Contracts (This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in b .....

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sue in accounting for construction contracts is the allocation of contract revenue and contract costs to the accounting periods in which construction work is performed. This Standard uses the recognition criteria established in the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India to determine when contract revenue and contract costs should be recognised as revenue and expenses in the statement of profit and loss. It .....

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a contract specifically negotiated for the construction of an asset or a combination of assets that are closely interrelated or interdependent in terms of their design, technology and function or their ultimate purpose or use. A fixed price contract is a construction contract in which the contractor agrees to a fixed contract price, or a fixed rate per unit of output, which in some cases is subject to cost escalation clauses. A cost plus contract is a construction contract in which the contracto .....

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clude those for the construction of refineries and other complex pieces of plant or equipment. 5. For the purposes of this Standard, construction contracts include: (a) contracts for the rendering of services which are directly related to the construction of the asset, for example, those for the services of project managers and architects; and (b) contracts for the destruction or restoration of assets, and the restoration of the environment following the demolition of assets. 6. Construction con .....

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penses. Combining and segmenting construction contracts 7. The requirements of this Standard are usually applied separately to each construction contract. However, in certain circumstances, it is necessary to apply the Standard to the separately identifiable components of a single contract or to a group of contracts together in order to reflect the substance of a contract or a group of contracts. 8. When a contract covers a number of assets, the construction of each asset shall be treated as a s .....

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s negotiated as a single package; (b) the contracts are so closely interrelated that they are, in effect, part of a single project with an overall profit margin; and (c) the contracts are performed concurrently or in a continuous sequence. 10. A contract may provide for the construction of an additional asset at the option of the customer or may be amended to include the construction of an additional asset. The construction of the additional asset shall be treated as a separate construction cont .....

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capable of being reliably measured. 12. Contract revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. The measurement of contract revenue is affected by a variety of uncertainties that depend on the outcome of future events. The estimates often need to be revised as events occur and uncertainties are resolved. Therefore, the amount of contract revenue may increase or decrease from one period to the next. For example: (a) a contractor and a customer may agree variat .....

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es as the number of units is increased. 13. A variation is an instruction by the customer for a change in the scope of the work to be performed under the contract. A variation may lead to an increase or a decrease in contract revenue. Examples of variations are changes in the specifications or design of the asset and changes in the duration of the contract. A variation is included in contract revenue when: (a) it is probable that the customer will approve the variation and the amount of revenue .....

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ends on the outcome of negotiations. Therefore, claims are included in contract revenue only when: (a) negotiations have reached an advanced stage such that it is probable that the customer will accept the claim; and (b) the amount that it is probable will be accepted by the customer can be measured reliably. 15. Incentive payments are additional amounts paid to the contractor if specified performance standards are met or exceeded. For example, a contract may allow for an incentive payment to th .....

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o the contract; and (c) such other costs as are specifically chargeable to the customer under the terms of the contract. 17. Costs that relate directly to a specific contract include: (a) site labour costs, including site supervision; (b) costs of materials used in construction; (c) depreciation of plant and equipment used on the contract; (d) costs of moving plant, equipment and materials to and from the contract site; (e) costs of hiring plant and equipment; (f) costs of design and technical a .....

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ontracts include: (a) insurance; (b) costs of design and technical assistance that are not directly related to a specific contract; and (c) construction overheads. Such costs are allocated using methods that are systematic and rational and are applied consistently to all costs having similar characteristics. The allocation is based on the normal level of construction activity. Construction overheads include costs such as the preparation and processing of construction personnel payroll. Costs tha .....

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t. Such costs include: (a) general administration costs for which reimbursement is not specified in the contract; (b) selling costs; (c) research and development costs for which reimbursement is not specified in the contract; and (d) depreciation of idle plant and equipment that is not used on a particular contract. 21. Contract costs include the costs attributable to a contract for the period from the date of securing the contract to the final completion of the contract. However, costs that rel .....

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come of a construction contract can be estimated reliably, contract revenue and contract costs associated with the construction contract shall be recognised as revenue and expenses respectively by reference to the stage of completion of the contract activity at the end of the reporting period. An expected loss on the construction contract shall be recognised as an expense immediately in accordance with paragraph 36. 23. In the case of a fixed price contract, the outcome of a construction contrac .....

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contract costs incurred can be compared with prior estimates. 24. In the case of a cost plus contract, the outcome of a construction contract can be estimated reliably when all the following conditions are satisfied: (a) it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the contract will flow to the entity; and (b) the contract costs attributable to the contract, whether or not specifically reimbursable, can be clearly identified and measured reliably. 25. The recognition of revenue and .....

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pletion method, contract revenue is recognised as revenue in profit or loss in the accounting periods in which the work is performed. Contract costs are usually recognised as an expense in profit or loss in the accounting periods in which the work to which they relate is performed. However, any expected excess of total contract costs over total contract revenue for the contract is recognised as an expense immediately in accordance with paragraph 36. 27. A contractor may have incurred contract co .....

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n amount already included in contract revenue, and already recognised in profit or loss, the uncollectible amount or the amount in respect of which recovery has ceased to be probable is recognised as an expense rather than as an adjustment of the amount of contract revenue. 29. An entity is generally able to make reliable estimates after it has agreed to a contract which establishes: (a) each party s enforceable rights regarding the asset to be constructed; (b) the consideration to be exchanged; .....

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ity uses the method that measures reliably the work performed. Depending on the nature of the contract, the methods may include: (a) the proportion that contract costs incurred for work performed to date bear to the estimated total contract costs; (b) surveys of work performed; or (c) completion of a physical proportion of the contract work. Progress payments and advances received from customers often do not reflect the work performed. 31. When the stage of completion is determined by reference .....

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yments made to subcontractors in advance of work performed under the subcontract. 32. When the outcome of a construction contract cannot be estimated reliably: (a) revenue shall be recognised only to the extent of contract costs incurred that it is probable will be recoverable; and (b) contract costs shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred. An expected loss on the construction contract shall be recognised as an expense immediately in accordance with paragraph 3 .....

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it may be probable that total contract costs will exceed total contract revenues. In such cases, any expected excess of total contract costs over total contract revenue for the contract is recognised as an expense immediately in accordance with paragraph 36. 34. Contract costs that are not probable of being recovered are recognised as an expense immediately. Examples of circumstances in which the recoverability of contract costs incurred may not be probable and in which contract costs may need .....

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certainties that prevented the outcome of the contract being estimated reliably no longer exist, revenue and expenses associated with the construction contract shall be recognised in accordance with paragraph 22 rather than in accordance with paragraph 32. Recognition of expected losses 36. When it is probable that total contract costs will exceed total contract revenue, the expected loss shall be recognised as an expense immediately. 37. The amount of such a loss is determined irrespective of: .....

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evenue or contract costs, or the effect of a change in the estimate of the outcome of a contract, is accounted for as a change in accounting estimate (see Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors). The changed estimates are used in the determination of the amount of revenue and expenses recognised in profit or loss in the period in which the change is made and in subsequent periods. Disclosure 39. An entity shall disclose: (a) the amount of contract revenue recog .....

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are amounts of progress billings that are not paid until the satisfaction of conditions specified in the contract for the payment of such amounts or until defects have been rectified. Progress billings are amounts billed for work performed on a contract whether or not they have been paid by the customer. Advances are amounts received by the contractor before the related work is performed. 42. An entity shall present: (a) the gross amount due from customers for contract work as an asset; and (b) .....

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its; less (b) the sum of recognised losses and progress billings for all contracts in progress for which progress billings exceed costs incurred plus recognised profits (less recognised losses). 45. An entity discloses any contingent liabilities and contingent assets in accordance with Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. Contingent liabilities and contingent assets may arise from such items as warranty costs, claims, penalties or possible losses. Appendix A Servi .....

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attract private sector participation in the development, financing, operation and maintenance of such infrastructure. The infrastructure may already exist, or may be constructed during the period of the service arrangement. An arrangement within the scope of this Appendix typically involves a private sector entity (an operator) constructing the infrastructure used to provide the public service or upgrading it (for example, by increasing its capacity) and operating and maintaining that infrastru .....

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obligation undertaken by the operator. Public policy is for the services related to the infrastructure to be provided to the public, irrespective of the identity of the party that operates the services. The service arrangement contractually obliges the operator to provide the services to the public on behalf of the public sector entity. Other common features are: (a) the party that grants the service arrangement (the grantor) is a public sector entity, including a governmental body, or a privat .....

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he end of the period of the arrangement, for little or no incremental consideration, irrespective of which party initially financed it. Scope 4 This Appendix gives guidance on the accounting by operators for public-to-private service concession arrangements 5 This Appendix applies to public-to-private service concession arrangements if: (a) the grantor controls or regulates what services the operator must provide with the infrastructure, to whom it must provide them, and at what price; and (b) t .....

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her, and to what extent, public-to-private service concession arrangements are within the scope of this Appendix. 7 This Appendix applies to both: (a) infrastructure that the operator constructs or acquires from a third party for the purpose of the service arrangement; and (b) existing infrastructure to which the grantor gives the operator access for the purpose of the service arrangement. 8 This Appendix does not specify the accounting for infrastructure that was held and recognised as property .....

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ndix B to this Indian Accounting Standard. The issues addressed in this Appendix are: (a) treatment of the operator s rights over the infrastructure; (b) recognition and measurement of arrangement consideration; (c) construction or upgrade services; (d) operation services; (e) borrowing costs; (f) subsequent accounting treatment of a financial asset and an intangible asset; and (g) items provided to the operator by the grantor. Accounting Principles Treatment of the operator s rights over the in .....

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on 12 Under the terms of contractual arrangements within the scope of this Appendix, the operator acts as a service provider. The operator constructs or upgrades infrastructure (construction or upgrade services) used to provide a public service and operates and maintains that infrastructure (operation services) for a specified period of time. 13 The operator shall recognise and measure revenue in accordance with Ind AS 11 and Ind AS 18 for the services it performs. If the operator performs more .....

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below. Construction or upgrade services 14 The operator shall account for revenue and costs relating to construction or upgrade services in accordance with this standard. Consideration given by the grantor to the operator 15 If the operator provides construction or upgrade services the consideration received or receivable by the operator shall be recognized at its fair value. The consideration may be rights to: (a) a financial asset, or (b) an intangible asset. 16 The operator shall recognise a .....

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ounts received from users of the public service and specified or determinable amounts, even if payment is contingent on the operator ensuring that the infrastructure meets specified quality or efficiency requirements. 17 The operator shall recognise an intangible asset to the extent that it receives a right (a licence) to charge users of the public service. A right to charge users of the public service is not an unconditional right to receive cash because the amounts are contingent on the extent .....

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ce to the contract terms and, when it exists, relevant contract law. Operation services 20 The operator shall account for revenue and costs relating to operation services in accordance with Ind AS 18. Contractual obligations to restore the infrastructure to a specified level of serviceability 21 The operator may have contractual obligations it must fulfil as a condition of its licence (a) to maintain the infrastructure to a specified level of serviceability or (b) to restore the infrastructure t .....

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Ind AS 23, borrowing costs attributable to the arrangement shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred unless the operator has a contractual right to receive an intangible asset (a right to charge users of the public service). In this case borrowing costs attributable to the arrangement shall be capitalised during the construction phase of the arrangement in accordance with that Standard. Financial asset 23 Ind AS 32, Ind AS 107 and Ind AS 109 apply to the financi .....

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profit or loss. Intangible asset 26 Ind AS 38 applies to the intangible asset recognised in accordance with paragraphs 17 and 18 of this Appendix. Paragraphs 45-47 of Ind AS 38 provide guidance on measuring intangible assets acquired in exchange for a non-monetary asset or assets or a combination of monetary and non-monetary assets. Items provided to the operator by the grantor 27 In accordance with paragraph 11, infrastructure items to which the operator is given access by the grantor for the .....

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pect of unfulfilled obligations it has assumed in exchange for the assets. Application Guidance on Appendix A This Application Guidance is an integral part of Appendix A Scope (paragraph 5 of Appendix A) AG1 Paragraph 5 of Appendix A specifies that infrastructure is within the scope of the Appendix when the following conditions apply: (a) the grantor controls or regulates what services the operator must provide with the infrastructure, to whom it must provide them, and at what price; and (b) the .....

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parties shall be considered together. If the grantor is a public sector entity, the public sector as a whole, together with any regulators acting in the public interest, shall be regarded as related to the grantor for the purposes of this Appendix A. AG3 For the purpose of condition (a), the grantor does not need to have complete control of the price: it is sufficient for the price to be regulated by the grantor, contract or regulator, for example by a capping mechanism. However, the condition .....

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the operator s practical ability to sell or pledge the infrastructure and give the grantor a continuing right of use throughout the period of the arrangement. The residual interest in the infrastructure is the estimated current value of the infrastructure as if it were already of the age and in the condition expected at the end of the period of the arrangement. AG5 Control should be distinguished from management. If the grantor retains both the degree of control described in paragraph 5(a) of Ap .....

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the period of the arrangement (eg the top layer of a road or the roof of a building), the item of infrastructure shall be considered as a whole. Thus condition (b) is met for the whole of the infrastructure, including the part that is replaced, if the grantor controls any significant residual interest in the final replacement of that part. AG7 Sometimes the use of infrastructure is partly regulated in the manner described in paragraph 5(a) of Appendix A and partly unregulated. However, these ar .....

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regulated, the control tests shall be applied as if those services did not exist, because in cases in which the grantor controls the services in the manner described in paragraph 5 of Appendix A, the existence of ancillary activities does not detract from the grantor s control of the infrastructure. AG8 The operator may have a right to use the separable infrastructure described in paragraph AG7 (a), or the facilities used to provide ancillary unregulated services described in paragraph AG7 (b). .....

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f arrangements for private sector participation in the provision of public sector services and provides references to Indian Accounting Standards that apply to those arrangements. The list of arrangements types is not exhaustive. The purpose of the table is to highlight the continuum of arrangements. It is not Appendix A s intention to convey the impression that bright lines exist between the accounting requirements for public-to-private arrangements Category Lessee Service provider Owner Typica .....

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Grantor Operator Relevant Indian Accounting Standards Ind AS 17 Ind AS 18 This Appendix A Ind AS 16 Appendix B Service Concession Arrangements: Disclosures This Appendix is an integral part of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 11. Issues 1. An entity (the operator) may enter into an arrangement with another entity (the grantor) to provide services that give the public access to major economic and social facilities. The grantor may be a public or private sector entity, including a governmental .....

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e period of the concession to the operator: (a) the right to provide services that give the public access to major economic and social facilities, and (b) in some cases, the right to use specified tangible assets, intangible assets, or financial assets, in exchange for the operator: (c) committing to provide the services according to certain terms and conditions during the concession period, and (d) when applicable, committing to return at the end of the concession period the rights received at .....

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s (eg Ind AS 16 applies to acquisitions of items of property, plant and equipment, Ind AS 17 applies to leases of assets, and Ind AS 38 applies to acquisitions of intangible assets). However, a service concession arrangement may involve executory contracts that are not addressed in Indian Accounting Standards, unless the contracts are onerous, in which case Ind AS 37 applies. Therefore, this Appendix addresses additional disclosures of service concession arrangements. Accounting Principles 6. Al .....

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ty, time period or amount as appropriate) of: (i) rights to use specified assets; (ii) obligations to provide or rights to expect provision of services; (iii) obligations to acquire or build items of property, plant and equipment; (iv) obligations to deliver or rights to receive specified assets at the end of the concession period; (v) renewal and termination options; and (vi) other rights and obligations (eg major overhauls); (d) changes in the arrangement occurring during the period; and (d) h .....

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