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GST - Concept & Status (01-07-2018)

Goods and Services Tax - GST - Dated:- 3-7-2018 - GOODS AND SERVICE TAX (GST): CONCEPT & STATUS CENTRAL BOARD OF INDIRECT TAXES AND CUSTOMS (CBIC) DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE MINISTRY OF FINANCE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA AS ON 1st JULY, 2018 The uniform system of taxation, which, with a few exceptions of no great consequence, takes place in all the different parts of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, leaves the interior commerce of the country, the inland and coasting trade, almost entirely free. The .....

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ket for the greater part of the productions of its own industry. If the same freedom, in consequence of the same uniformity, could be extended to Ireland and the plantations, both the grandeur of the state and the prosperity of every part of the empire, would probably be still greater than at present - Adam Smith in Wealth of Nations INTRODUCTION: Whether it was uniformity of taxation and consequent interior free trade or possession of the jewel in the crown at the root of prosperity of Britain .....

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5 of the Constitution of India provides that no tax shall be levied or collected except by authority of law. As per Article 246 of the Constitution, Parliament has exclusive powers to make laws in respect of matters given in Union List (List I of the Seventh Schedule) and State Government has the exclusive jurisdiction to legislate on the matters containing in State List (List II of the Seventh Schedule). In respect of the matters contained in Concurrent List (List III of the Seventh Schedule), .....

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t notified. So tax on services were continued to be levied under the residual entry, i.e. entry 97, of the Union List till GST came into force. The Union also levied tax called Central Sales Tax (CST) on inter-State sale and purchase of goods and on inter-State consignments of goods by virtue of entry 92A and 92B respectively. CST however is assigned to the State of origin, as per Central Sales Tax Act, 1956 made under Article 269 of the Constitution. 2.3 On the State side, the most important so .....

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DEPENDENCE INDIA TILL GST: 3.1 In post-Independence period, central excise duty was levied on a few commodities which were in the nature of raw materials and intermediate inputs, and consumer goods were outside the net by and large. The first set of reform was suggested by the Taxation Enquiry Commission (1953-54) under the chairmanship of Dr. John Matthai. The Commission recommended that sales tax should be used specifically by the States as a source of revenue with Union governments' inter .....

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called specific duty, and on value, called ad valorem duty. The number of rates was too many with no offsetting of taxes paid on inputs leading to significant cascading and classification disputes. 3.3 The Indirect Taxation Enquiry Committee constituted in 1976 under Shri L K Jha recommended, inter alia, converting specific rates into ad valorem rates, rate consolidation and input tax credit mechanism of value added tax at manufacturing level (MANVAT). In 1986, the recommendation of the Jha Com .....

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w Economic Policy of 1991. The Tax Reforms Committee under the chairmanship of Prof. Raja J Chelliah was appointed in 1991. This Committee recommended broadening of the tax base by taxing services and pruning exemptions, consolidation and lowering of rates, extension of MODVAT on all inputs including capital goods. It suggested that reform of tax structure must have to be accompanied by a reform of tax administration, if complete benefits were to be derived from the tax reforms. Many of the reco .....

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s were brought into the fold. Over the next decade, more and more services were brought under the tax net. In 1994, tax rate on three services was 5% which gradually increased and in 2017 it was 15% (including cess). Before 2012, services were taxed under a positive list approach. This approach was prone to tax avoidance . In 2012 budget, negative list approach was adopted where 17 services were out of taxation net and all other services were subject to tax. In 2004, the input tax credit scheme .....

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me States and these varied for the same commodity in different States. Inter-state sales were subjected to levy of Central Sales Tax. As this tax was appropriated by the exporting State credit was not allowed by the dealer in the importing State. This resulted into exportation of tax from richer to poorer states and also cascading of taxes. Interestingly, States had power of taxation over services from the very beginning. States levied tax on advertisements, luxuries, entertainments, amusements, .....

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machinery and equipment; harmonization and rationalization of tax rates across States with two or three rates within specified bands; pruning of exemptions and concessions except for a basic threshold limit and items like unprocessed food; zero rating of exports, inter-State sales and consignment transfers to registered dealers; taxing inter-State sales to non-registered persons as local sales; modernization of tax administration, computerization of operations and simplification of forms and pr .....

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VAT, in 2003. In 2005, VAT was implemented in most of the states. Uttar Pradesh was the last State to implement VAT, from 1st January, 2008. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES ON GST / VAT: 4.1 VAT and GST are used inter-changeably as the latter denotes comprehensiveness of VAT by coverage of goods and services. France was the first country to implement VAT, in 1954. Presently, more than 160 countries have implemented GST / VAT in some form or the other. The most popular form of VAT is where taxes paid .....

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ause the former is neutral in allocation of resources as it taxes value addition. Besides, there are certain distinct advantages of VAT. It is less cascading making the taxation system transparent and anti-inflationary. From revenue point of view, VAT leads to greater compliance because of creation of transaction trails. 4.2 When compared globally, VAT structures are either overly centralized where tax is levied and administered by the Central government (Germany, Switzerland, Austria), or dual .....

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called non- participating provinces , whereas provinces which have teamed up with the Federal Government for tax administration are called participating provinces . 4.3 The rate of GST varies across countries. While Malaysia has a lower rate of 6% (Malaysia though scrapped GST in 2018 due to popular uproar against it), Hungary has one of the highest rate of 27%. Australia levies GST at the rate of 10% whereas Canada has multiple rate slabs. The average rate of VAT across the EU is around 19.5%. .....

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on previous purchases and has again been an improvement over the previous sales tax regime. 5.2 But both the CENVAT and the State VAT have certain incompleteness. The incompleteness in CENVAT is that it has yet not been extended to include chain of value addition in the distributive trade below the stage of production. Similarly, in the State-level VAT, CENVAT load on the goods has not yet been removed and the cascading effect of that part of tax burden has remained unrelieved. Moreover, there a .....

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ite remarkable harmonization in VAT regimes under the auspices of the EC, the national market was fragmented with too many obstacles in free movement of goods necessitated by procedural requirement under VAT and CST. 5.4 In the constitutional scheme, taxation powers on goods was with Central Government but it was limited upto the stage of manufacture and production while States have powers to tax sale and purchase of goods. Centre had powers to tax services and States also had powers to tax cert .....

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ation of Central VAT and State VAT therefore is nothing but an inevitable consequence of the reform process. The Constitution of India envisages a federal nature of power bestowed upon both Union and States in the Constitution itself. As a natural corollary of this, any unification of the taxation system required a dual GST, levied and collected both by the Union and the States. GST : A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE: 6.1 The Kelkar Task Force on Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) recomm .....

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k with the Central Government to prepare a road map for introduction of GST in India. After this announcement, the EC decided to set up a Joint Working Group in May 10, 2007, with the then Adviser to the Union Finance Minister and Member-Secretary of the Empowered Committee as its Co-conveners and four Joint Secretaries of the Department of Revenue of Union Finance Ministry and all Finance Secretaries of the States as its members. This Joint Working Group got itself divided into three Sub-Groups .....

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report in writing. On the basis of these discussions in the EC and the written observations, certain modifications were considered necessary and were discussed with the Co-convenors and the representatives of the Department of Revenue of Union Finance Ministry. With the modifications duly made, a final version of the views of EC on the model and road map for the GST was prepared (April 30, 2008). These views of EC were then sent to the Government of India, and the comments of Government of Indi .....

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ts First Discussion Paper (FDP) on GST in November, 2009. This spelled out the features of the proposed GST and has formed the basis for discussion between the Centre and the States. CHALLENGES IN DESIGNING GST: 7.1 In the discussion that preceded amendment in the Constitution for GST, there were a number of thorny issues that required resolution and agreement between Central Government and State Governments. Implementing a tax reform as vast as GST in a diverse country like India required the r .....

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duction or sale happened and not to the State where consumption happened. Many manufacturing States expressed concerns over the loss of revenue on account of shift from origin based taxation to destination based taxation. 7.2.1 An argument put forward on behalf of producing states in support of origin based taxation is that they need to collect at least some tax from inter-State sales in order to recover the cost of infrastructure and public services provided by the State Governments to the indu .....

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ales tax base of the producing states and thereby contributes to their revenues. In fact, to the extent that consumer expenditures are dependent on the level of income of the residents of a State, it is the producing States that stand to gain the most in additional sales tax revenues (even under the destination basis of consumption taxes) from increased export output. 7.3 Rate Structure and Compensation: There was uncertainty about gains in revenue after implementation of GST. Though attempts we .....

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(Revenue Neutral Rate). The term RNR refers to that single rate, which preserves revenue at desired (current) levels. This would differ from the standard rate, which is the rate that would apply to a majority of goods and services. In practice, there will be a structure of rates, but for the sake of analytical clarity and precision it is appropriate to think of the RNR as a single rate. It is a given single rate that gets converted into a whole rate structure, depending on policy choices about .....

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s stick to the decisions taken by the supreme body, which was later constituted as the Goods and Services Tax Council (the Council). However, the possibility of departure from the recommendations of such body cannot be completely ruled out. Any departure would definitely affect other stakeholders and in such circumstances there must be a statutory body to which affected parties may approach for dispute resolution. The nature of such dispute resolution body was a bone of contention. Under the Con .....

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il may decide about the modalities to resolve disputes arising out of its recommendations. 7.5 Alcohol and Petroleum products: Alcoholic liquor for human consumption and petroleum products are major contributor to revenue of States. As States were uncertain about impact of GST on their finances and moreover loss of autonomy in collection of tax revenue, States unanimously argued for exclusion of these products from the ambit of GST. In the 115th Amendment Bill alcoholic liquor for human consumpt .....

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GST. Thus, to ensure smooth transition and provide fiscal buffer to States, it was agreed to keep alcohol completely out of the ambit of GST. CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT: 8.1 As explained above, unification of Central VAT and State VAT was possible in form of a dual levy under the constitutional scheme. Power of taxation is assigned to either Union or States subject-wise under Schedule VII of the Constitution. While the Centre is empowered to tax goods upto the production or manufacturing stage, t .....

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conferring simultaneous power on Parliament as well as the State Legislatures to make laws for levying goods and services tax on every transaction of supply of goods or services was necessary. 8.2 The Constitution (115th Amendment) Bill, 2011, in relation to the introduction of GST, was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 11th March, 2011. The Bill was referred to the Standing Committee on Finance on 29th March, 2011. The Standing Committee submitted its report on the Bill in August, 2013. However, .....

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Sabha and thereafter by Lok Sabha in August, 2016. Further the bill was ratified by required number of States and received assent of the President on 8th September, 2016 and has since been enacted as Constitution (101st Amendment) Act, 2016 w.e.f. 16th September, 2016. 8.4 The important changes introduced in the Constitution by the 101st Amendment Act are the following: Insertion of new article 246A which makes enabling provisions for the Union and States with respect to the GST legislation. It .....

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the Government of India and such tax shall be apportioned between the Union and the States in the manner as may be provided by Parliament by law on the recommendations of the Goods and Services Tax Council. It also provides that Parliament may, by law, formulate the principles for determining the place of supply, and when a supply of goods, or of services, or both takes place in the course of inter-State trade or commerce. Article 270 has been amended to provide for distribution of goods and se .....

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icle 368 has been amended to provide for a special procedure which requires the ratification of the Bill by the legislatures of not less than one half of the States in addition to the method of voting provided for amendment of the Constitution. Thus, any modification in GST Council shall also require the ratification by the legislatures of one half of the States. Entries in List I and List II have been either substituted or omitted to restrict power to tax goods or services specified in these Li .....

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of the Goods and Services Tax Council. GOODS & SERVICE TAX COUNCIL: 9.1 As provided for in Article 279A of the Constitution, the Goods and Services Tax Council (the Council) was notified with effect from 12th September, 2016. The Council is comprised of the Union Finance Minister (who will be the Chairman of the Council), the Minister of State (Revenue) and the State Finance/Taxation Ministers as members. It shall make recommendations to the Union and the States on the following issues: the .....

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e additional resources during any natural calamity or disaster; special provision with respect to the North- East States, J&K, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand; and any other matter relating to the GST, as the Council may decide. 9.2 The Council shall recommend the date on which the goods and services tax be levied on petroleum crude, high speed diesel, motor spirit (commonly known as petrol), natural gas and aviation turbine fuel. While discharging the functions conferred by this article, t .....

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ting, by a majority of not less than three-fourths of the weighted votes of the members present and voting, in accordance with the following principles, namely: - (a) the vote of the Central Government shall have a weightage of one-third of the total votes cast, and (b) the votes of all the State Governments taken together shall have a weightage of two-thirds of the total votes cast, in that meeting. 9.4 The Council has met for 27 times and no occasion has arisen so far that required voting to d .....

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shall not be available to inter-State suppliers, service providers (except restaurant service) and specified category of manufacturers. For special category States (except J&K and Uttarakhand) enumerated in article 279A of the Constitution, threshold exemption limit has been fixed at ₹ 75 lakh. (iii) Existing tax incentive schemes of Central or State governments may be continued by respective government by way of reimbursement through budgetary route. The schemes, in the present form, .....

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ive control over taxpayers having turnover above ₹ 1.5 crore shall be divided equally in the ratio of 50% each for the Central and State tax administration. (vi) Powers under the IGST Act shall also be cross-empowered on the same basis as under CGST and SGST Acts with few exceptions. (vii) Power to collect GST in territorial waters shall be delegated by Central Government to the States. (viii) Formula and mechanism for GST Compensation Cess has been finalized. (ix) Eighteen rules on compos .....

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ing inter State supplies; Suppliers of services, having turnover upto ₹ 20 lakhs, making supplies through e-commerce platforms. (xi) The reverse charge mechanism under sub-section (4) of section 9 of the CGST Act, 2017 and under sub-section (4) of section 5 of the IGST Act, 2017 has been suspended till 30.09.2018. (xii) There shall be no requirement on payment of tax on advance received for supply of goods by all taxpayers. (xiii) Supply from GTA to unregistered persons has been exempted f .....

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uld have to file FORM GSTR-1 on a monthly basis. (xviii) Time period for filing FORM GSTR-2 and FORM GSTR-3 would be worked out by a Committee of officers. (xix) Late fee for delayed filing of return in FORM GSTR-3B for the months of July, 2017 to September, 2017 has been waived. The amount of late fee already paid but subsequently waived off shall be re-credited to the Electronic Cash Ledger of registered person under Tax head instead of Fee head. (xx) From October 2017 onwards, the amount of l .....

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rtible currency - such suppliers shall be eligible for input tax credit. (xxiii) Centralized UIN shall be issued to every Foreign Diplomatic Mission / UN Organization by the Central Government. (xxiv) Rate of interest on delayed payments and delayed refund has been recommended. THE DESIGN OF INDIAN GST: 10.1 Concurrent dual model of GST: India has adopted dual GST model because of its unique federal nature. Under this model, tax is levied concurrently by the Centre as well as the States on a com .....

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GST (Integrated tax / IGST). The IGST model is a unique contribution of India in the field of VAT. The IGST Model envisages that Centre would levy IGST (Integrated Goods and Service Tax) which would be CGST plus SGST on all inter-State supply of goods or services or both. The inter-State supplier will pay IGST on value addition after adjusting available credit of IGST, CGST, and SGST on his purchases. The Exporting State will transfer to the Centre the credit of SGST used in payment of IGST. The .....

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ter-State transactions. b) No upfront payment of tax or substantial blockage of funds for the inter-State supplier or recipient. c) No refund claim in exporting State, as ITC is used up while paying the tax. d) Self-monitoring model. e) Model takes Business to Business as well as Business to Consumer transactions into account. 10.3 Tax Rates: Owing to unique Indian socio-economic milieu, four rates namely 5%, 12%, 18% and 28% have been adopted. Besides, some goods and services are exempt also. R .....

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icable has also been notified. 10.4 Compensation to States: The Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Act, 2017 provides for compensation to the States for the loss of revenue arising on account of implementation of the goods and services tax. Compensation will be provided to a State for a period of five years from the date on which the State brings its SGST Act into force. For the purpose of calculating the compensation amount in any financial year, year 2015-16 will be assumed to be .....

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troleum products, will not be accounted as part of the base year revenue. A GST Compensation Cess is levied on the supply of certain goods and services, as recommended by the GST Council to finance the compensation cess. 10.5 E-Way Bill System: The introduction of e-way (electronic way) bill is a monumental shift from the earlier Departmental Policing Model to a Self-Declaration Model . It envisages one e-way bill for movement of the goods throughout the country, thereby ensuring a hassle free m .....

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coupled with increase in inflation and the prices of the commodities. This happened in spite of the availability of the tax credit. This was happening because the supplier was not passing on the benefit to the consumer and thereby indulging in illegal profiteering. Any reduction in rate of tax or the benefit of increased input tax credit should have been passed on to the recipient by way of commensurate reduction in prices. 10.6.1 National Anti-profiteering Authority (NAPA) has been constituted .....

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ces, imposition of penalty, cancellation of registration and any other decision as may deem fit, after inquiry into the case. 10.7 Concept of Supply: GST would be applicable on supply of goods or services as against the present concept of tax on manufacture of goods or on sale of goods or on provision of services. It includes all sorts of activities like manufacture, sale, barter, exchange, transfer etc. It also includes supplies made without consideration when such supplies are made in certain .....

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) is available to small taxpayers (including to manufacturers other than specified category of manufacturers and service providers) having an annual turnover of up to ₹ 1 crore (Rs. 75 lakh for special category States (except J&K and Uttarakhand) enumerated in article 279A of the Constitution). This limit shall be raised to ₹ 1.5 crore after necessary amendments in the GST Acts. 10.10 Zero rated Supplies: Export of goods and services are zero rated. Supplies to SEZs developers an .....

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in that order; (b) ITC of SGST allowed for payment of SGST & IGST in that order; (c) ITC of UTGST allowed for payment of UTGST & IGST in that order; (d) ITC of IGST allowed for payment of IGST, CGST & SGST/UTGST in that order. ITC of CGST cannot be used for payment of SGST/UTGST and vice versa. 10.12 Settlement of Government Accounts: Accounts would be settled periodically between the Centre and the State to ensure that the credit of SGST used for payment of IGST is transferred by t .....

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it card and National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) / Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS). 10.14 Tax Deduction at Source: Obligation on certain persons including government departments, local authorities and government agencies, who are recipients of supply, to deduct tax at the rate of 1% from the payment made or credited to the supplier where total value of supply, under a contract, exceeds two lakh and fifty thousand rupees. The provision for TDS has not been operationalized yet. 10.15 Refund .....

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ion for TCS has not been operationalized yet. 10.17 Self-assessment: Self-assessment of the taxes payable by the registered person shall be the norm. Audit of registered persons shall be conducted on selective basis. Limitation period for raising demand is three (3) years from the due date of filing of annual return or from the date of erroneous refund for raising demand for short-payment or non-payment of tax or erroneous refund and its adjudication in normal cases. Limitation period for raisin .....

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e Tribunal would be constituted by the Central Government for hearing appeals against the orders passed by the Appellate Authority or the Revisional Authority. States would adopt the provisions relating to Tribunal in respective SGST Act. 10.20 Advance Ruling Authority: Advance Ruling Authority would be constituted by States in order to enable the taxpayer to seek a binding clarity on taxation matters from the department. Centre would adopt such authority under CGST Act. 10.21 Transitional Provi .....

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oms (SAD), Service Tax and cesses and surcharges insofar as they related to supply of goods or services were subsumed. As far as taxes levied and collected by States are concerned, State VAT, Central Sales Tax, Purchase Tax, Luxury Tax, Entry Tax, Entertainment Tax (except those levied by the local bodies), Taxes on advertisements, Taxes on lotteries, betting and gambling, cesses and surcharges insofar as they related to supply of goods or services were subsumed. GST LEGISLATIONS: 11.1 Four Laws .....

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tification was issued for GST and notified certain sections under CGST. Since then, one hundred and three notifications under CGST Act have been issued notifying sections, notifying rules, amendment to rules and for waiver of penalty, etc. Thirteen, twenty eight and one notifications have also been issued under IGST Act, UTGST Act and GST (Compensation to States) Act respectively. Further 58, 62, 58 and 8 rate related notifications each have been issued under the CGST Act, IGST Act, UTGST Act an .....

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ive domain of the Centre. This apart, the CBIC has prepared itself for meeting the implementation challenges, which are quite formidable. The number of taxpayers has gone up significantly. The existing IT infrastructure of CBIC has been suitably scaled up to handle such large volumes of data. Based on the legal provisions and procedure for GST, the content of work-flow software such as ACES (Automated Central Excise & Service Tax) would require re-engineering. The name of IT project of CBIC .....

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imparting training on GST law and procedures to more than 60,000 officers of CBIC and Commercial Tax officers of State Governments. 12.3 CBIC would be responsible for administration of the CGST and IGST law. In addition, excise duty regime would continue to be administered by the CBIC for levy and collection of central excise duty on five specified petroleum products as well as on tobacco products. CBIC would also continue to handle the work relating to levy and collection of customs duties. 12 .....

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TAX NETWORK: 13.1 Goods and Services Tax Network (GSTN) has been set up by the Government as a private company under erstwhile Section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956. GSTN would provide three front end services to the taxpayers namely registration, payment and return. Besides providing these services to the taxpayers, GSTN would be developing back-end IT modules for 27 States who have opted for the same. Infosys has been appointed as Managed Service Provider (MSP). GSTN has selected 73 IT, ITeS a .....

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lds 10%, NSE Strategic Investment holds 10% and LIC Housing Finance holds 10%. The GST Council in its 27th meeting held on 04th May, 2018 has approved the change in shareholding pattern of GSTN. The design of GST systems is based on role based access. The taxpayer can access his own data through identified applications like registration, return, view ledger etc. The tax official having jurisdiction, as per GST law, can access the data. Data can be accessed by audit authorities as per law. No oth .....

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etitiveness of Indian goods and services in the international market and give boost to Indian exports. The uniformity in tax rates and procedures across the country will also go a long way in reducing the compliance cost. 14.3 Benefits to small traders and entrepreneurs: GST has increased the threshold for GST registration for small businesses. Those units having aggregate annual turnover more than ₹ 20 lakhs (10 lakhs in case of North Eastern States) have be registered under GST. Unlike m .....

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ustry, trade and agriculture through a more comprehensive and wider coverage of input tax set-off and service tax set-off, subsuming of several Central and State taxes in the GST and phasing out of CST. The transparent and complete chain of set-offs which will result in widening of tax base and better tax compliance may also lead to lowering of tax burden on an average dealer in industry, trade and agriculture. 14.5 Benefits for common consumers: With the introduction of GST, the cascading effec .....

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o create a unified common national market for India, giving a boost to foreign investment and Make in India campaign. It will prevent cascading of taxes and make products cheaper, thus boosting aggregate demand. It will result in harmonization of laws, procedures and rates of tax. It will boost export and manufacturing activity, generate more employment and thus increase GDP with gainful employment leading to substantive economic growth. Ultimately it will help in poverty eradication by generati .....

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a and inter-State supplies. Average tax burden on companies is likely to come down which is expected to reduce prices and lower prices mean more consumption, which in turn means more production thereby helping in the growth of the industries. This will create India as a Manufacturing hub . 14.7 Ease of Doing Business: Simpler tax regime with fewer exemptions along with reduction in multiplicity of taxes that are at present governing our indirect tax system will lead to simplification and uniform .....

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l returns to be filed online, input credits to be verified online, encouraging more paper trail of transactions. Common procedures for registration of taxpayers, refund of taxes, uniform formats of tax return, common tax base, common system of classification of goods and services will lend greater certainty to taxation system. EXPERIENCE OF REGISTRATION & RETURN FILING: 15.1 Registration & Returns Snapshot: S. No. Details As on 1st July, 2018 1. No. of transited (migrated) taxpayers 66,1 .....

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2017 69,38,863 11. No. of 3(B) returns filed for November, 2017 69,49,217 12. No. of 3(B) returns filed for December, 2017 69,70,538 13. No. of 3(B) returns filed for January, 2018 69,95,132 14. No. of 3(B) returns filed for February, 2018 70,16,495 15. No. of 3(B) returns filed for March, 2018 69,42,841 16. No. of 3(B) returns filed for April, 2018 67,70,507 17. No. of 3(B) returns filed for May, 2018 64,38,287 18. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for July, 2017 57,76,234 19. No. of GSTR 1 returns .....

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018 20,32,081 28. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for May, 2018 18,34,250 29. No. of GSTR 2 returns filed for July, 2017 25,72,552 30. No. of GSTR 4 returns filed for quarter July-September, 2017 9,45,718 31. No. of GSTR 4 returns filed for quarter October-December, 2017 13,96,721 32. No. of GSTR 4 returns filed for quarter January-March, 2018 13,60,204 CHALLENGES & FUTURE AHEAD: 16.1 Any new change is accompanied by difficulties and problems at the outset. A change as comprehensive as GST is bo .....

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