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Home Acts & Rules Allied Laws Indian Contract Act, 1872 Chapters List

Indian Contract Act, 1872

Section 1 : Short title
Section 2 : Interpretation clause
Chapter: I
Section 3 : Communication, acceptance and revocation of proposals
Section 4 : Communication when complete
Section 5 : Revocation of proposals and acceptances
Section 6 : Revocation how made
Section 7 : Acceptance must be absolute
Section 8 : Acceptance by performing conditions, or receiving consideration
Section 9 : Promises, express or Implied
Chapter: II
Section 10 : What agreements are contracts
Section 11 : Who are competent to contract
Section 12 : What is a sound mind for the purposes of contracting
Section 13 : "Consent" defined
Section 14 : "Free consent" defined
Section 15 : "Coercion" defined
Section 16 : "Undue influence" defined
Section 17 : "Fraud" defined
Section 18 : "Misrepresentation" defined
Section 19 : Voidability of agreements without free consent
Section 19A : Power to set aside contract induced by undue influence
Section 20 : Agreement void where both parties are under mistake as to matter of fact
Section 21 : Effect of mistakes as to law
Section 22 : Contract caused by mistake of one party as to matter of fact
Section 23 : What considerations and objects are lawful and what not
Chapter: IIa
Void agreements
Section 24 : Agreements void, if Considerations and objects unlawful in part
Section 25 : Agreement void, if made without consideration
Section 26 : Agreement in restraint of marriage void
Section 27 : Agreement in restraint of trade void
Section 28 : Agreements in restraint of legal proceedings void
Section 29 : Agreements void for uncertainty
Section 30 : Agreements by way of wager void
Chapter: III
Section 31 : "Contingent contract" defined
Section 32 : Enforcement of contracts contingent on an event happening
Section 33 : Enforcement of contracts contingent on an event not happening
Section 34 : When event on which contract is contingent to be deemed impossible, if it is the future conduct of a living person
Section 35 : When contracts become void which are contingent on happening of specified event within fixed time.
Section 36 : Agreements contingent on impossible events void
Chapter: IV
OF THE PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACTS (Contracts which must be performed)
Section 37 : Obligation of parties to contracts
Section 38 : Effect of refusal to accept offer of performance
Section 39 : Effect of refusal of party to perform promise wholly
Chapter: IVa
By whom contracts must be performed
Section 40 : Person by whom promise is to be performed
Section 41 : Effect of accepting performance from third person
Section 42 : Devolution of Joint liabilities
Section 43 : Any one of Joint promisors may he compelled to perform
Section 44 : Effect of release of one Joint promisor
Section 45 : Devolution of Joint rights
Chapter: IVb
Time and place for performance
Section 46 : Time for performance of promise, where no application is to be made and no time is specified
Section 47 : Time and place for performance of promise, where time is specified and no application to be made
Section 48 : Application for performance on certain day to be at proper time and place
Section 49 : Place for performance of promise, where no application to be made and no place fixed for performance
Section 50 : Performance in manner or at time prescribed or sanctioned by promisee
Chapter: IVc
Performance of reciprocal promises
Section 51 : Promisor not bound to perform unless reciprocal promisee ready and willing to perform
Section 52 : Order of performance of reciprocal promises
Section 53 : Liability of party preventing event on which the contract is to take effect
Section 54 : Effect of default as to that promise which should be first performed, in contract consisting of reciprocal promises
Section 55 : Effect of failure to perform at fixed time, in contract in which time is essential
Section 56 : Agreement to do impossible act
Section 57 : Reciprocal promises to do things legal, and also other things illegal
Section 58 : Alternative promise, one branch being illegal
Chapter: IVd
Appropriation of payments
Section 59 : Application of payment where debt to be discharged is Indicated
Section 60 : Application of payment where debt to be discharged is not indicated
Section 61 : Application of payment where neither party appropriates
Chapter: IVe
Contracts which need not be performed
Section 62 : Effect of novation, rescission and alteration of contract
Section 63 : Promisee may dispense with or remit performance of promise
Section 64 : Consequences of rescission of voidable contract
Section 65 : Obligation of person who has received advantage under void agreement or contract that becomes void
Section 66 : Mode of communicating or revoking rescission of voidable contract
Section 67 : Effect of neglect of promisee to afford promisor reasonable facilities for performance
Chapter: V
Section 68 : Claim for necessaries supplied to person incapable of contracting, or on his account
Section 69 : Reimbursement of person paying money due by another in payment of which he is interested
Section 70 : Obligation of person enjoying benefit of non-gratuitous act
Section 71 : Responsibility of finder of goods
Section 72 : Liability of person to whom money is paid, or thing delivered by mistake or under coercion
Chapter: VI
Section 73 : Compensation for loss or damage caused by breach of contract
Section 74 : Compensation for breach of contract where penalty stipulated for
Section 75 : Party rightfully rescinding contract entitled to compensation
Chapter: VII
Chapter: VIII
Section 124 : "Contract of indemnity" defined
Section 125 : Rights of indemnity-holder when sued
Section 126 : "Contract of guarantee", "surety", "principal debtor" and "creditor"
Section 127 : Consideration for guarantee
Section 128 : Surety's liability
Section 129 : Continuing guarantee
Section 130 : Revocation of continuing guarantee
Section 131 : Revocation of continuing guarantee by surety's death
Section 132 : Liability of two persons, primarily liable, not affected by arrangement between them that one shall be surety on other's default
Section 133 : Discharge of surety by variance in terms of contract
Section 134 : Discharge of surety by release or discharge of principal debtor
Section 135 : Discharge of surety when creditor compounds with, gives time to, or agrees not to sue, principal debtor
Section 136 : Surety not discharged when agreement made with third person to give time to principal debtor
Section 137 : Creditor's forbearance to sue does not discharge surety
Section 138 : Release of one co-surety does not discharge others
Section 139 : Discharge of surety by creditor's act or omission impairing surety's eventual remedy
Section 140 : Rights of surety on payment or performance
Section 141 : Surety's right to benefit of creditor's securities
Section 142 : Guarantee obtained by misrepresentation invalid
Section 143 : Guarantee obtained by concealment invalid
Section 144 : Guarantee on contract that creditor shall not act on it until co-surety joins
Section 145 : Implied promise to indemnify surety
Section 146 : Co-sureties liable to contribute equally
Section 147 : Liability of co-sureties bound in different sums
Chapter: IX
Section 148 : "Bailment","bailor"and"bailee"defined
Section 149 : Delivery to bailee how made
Section 150 : Bailor's duty to disclose faults in goods bailed
Section 151 : Care to be taken by bailee
Section 152 : Bailee when not liable for loss, etc., of thing bailed
Section 153 : Termination of bailment by bailee's act inconsistent with conditions
Section 154 : Liability of bailee making unauthorised use of goods bailed
Section 155 : Effect of mixture, with bailor's consent, of his goods with bailee's
Section 156 : Effect of mixture, without bailor's consent, when the goods can be separated
Section 157 : Effect of mixture, without bailor's consent, when the goods cannot be separated
Section 158 : Repayment by bailor of necessary expenses
Section 159 : Restoration of goods lent gratuitously
Section 160 : Return of goods bailed on expiration of time or accomplishment of purpose
Section 161 : Bailee's responsibility when goods are not duly returned
Section 162 : Termination of gratuitous bailment by death
Section 163 : Bailor entitled to increase or profit from goods bailed
Section 164 : Bailor's responsibility to bailee
Section 165 : Bailment by several Joint owners
Section 166 : Bailee not responsible on redelivery to bailor without title
Section 167 : Right of third person claiming goods bailed
Section 168 : Right of finder of goods; may sue for-specific reward offered
Section 169 : When finder of thing commonly on sale may sell it
Section 170 : Bailee's particular lien
Section 171 : General lien of bankers, factors, wharfingers, attorneys and policy-brokers
Chapter: IXa
Bailment of pledges
Section 172 : "Pledge", "pawnor" and "pawnee" defined
Section 173 : Pawnee's right of retainer
Section 174 : Pawnee not to retain for debt or promise other than that for which goods pledged. Presumption In case of subsequent advances
Section 175 : Pawnee's right as to extraordinary expenses incurred
Section 176 : Pawnee's right where pawnor makes default
Section 177 : Defaulting pawnor's right to redeem
Section 178 : Pledge by mercantile agent
Section 178A : Pledge by person in possession under voidable contract
Section 179 : Pledge where pawnor has only a limited interest
Chapter: IXb
Suits by bailees or bailors against wrong doers
Section 180 : Suit by bailor or bailee against wrong-doer
Section 181 : Apportionment of relief or compensation obtained by such suits
Chapter: X
AGENCY (Appointment and Authority of agents)
Section 182 : "Agent" and "principal" defined
Section 183 : Who may employ agent
Section 184 : Who may be an agent
Section 185 : Consideration not necessary
Section 186 : Agent's authority may be express or implied
Section 187 : Definitions of express and implied authority
Section 188 : Extent of agent's authority
Section 189 : Agent's authority in an emergency
Chapter: Xa
Section 190 : When agent cannot delegate
Section 191 : "Sub-agent" defined
Section 192 : Representation of principal by sub-agent properly appointed
Section 193 : Agent's responsibility for sub-agent appointed without authority
Section 194 : Relation between, principal and person duly appointed by agent to act in business of agency
Section 195 : Agent's duty in naming such person
Chapter: Xb
Section 196 : Right of person as to acts done for him without his authority. Effect of ratification
Section 197 : Ratification may be expressed or implied
Section 198 : Knowledge requisite for valid ratification
Section 199 : Effect of ratifying unauthorized act forming part of a transaction
Section 200 : Ratification of unauthorized act cannot injure third person
Chapter: Xc
Revocation of authority
Section 201 : Termination of agency
Section 202 : Termination of agency, where agent has an interest in subject-matter
Section 203 : When principal may revoke agent's authority
Section 204 : Revocation where authority has been partly exercised
Section 205 : Compensation for revocation by principal, or renunciation by agent
Section 206 : Notice of revocation or renunciation
Section 207 : Revocation and renunciation may be expressed or implied
Section 208 : When termination of agent's authority takes effect as to agent, and as to third persons
Section 209 : Agent's duty on termination of agency by principal's death or insanity
Section 210 : Termination of sub-agent's authority
Chapter: Xd
Agents duty to Principal
Section 211 : Agent's duty in conducting principal's business
Section 212 : Skill and diligence required from agent
Section 213 : Agent's accounts
Section 214 : Agent's duty to communicate with principal
Section 215 : Right of principal when agent deals, on his own account, in business of agency without principal's consent
Section 216 : Principal's right to benefit gained by agent dealing on his own account in business of agency
Section 217 : Agent's right of retainer out of sums received on principal's account
Section 218 : Agent's duty to pay sums received for principal
Section 219 : When agent's remuneration becomes due
Section 220 : Agent not entitled to remuneration for business misconducted
Section 221 : Agent's lien on principal's property
Chapter: Xe
Principal's duty to agent
Section 222 : Agent to be Indemnified against consequences of lawful acts
Section 223 : Agent to be indemnified against consequences of acts done in good faith
Section 224 : Non-liability of employer of agent to do a criminal act
Section 225 : Compensation to agent for injury caused by principal's neglect
Chapter: Xf
Effect of agency on contract with third persons
Section 226 : Enforcement and consequences of agent's contracts
Section 227 : Principal how for bound, when agent exceeds authority
Section 228 : Principal not bound when excess of agent's authority is not separable
Section 229 : Consequences of notice given to agent
Section 230 : Agent cannot personally enforce, nor be bound by, contracts on behalf of principal
Section 231 : Rights of parties to a contract made by agent not disclosed
Section 232 : Performance of contract with agent supposed to be principal
Section 233 : Right of person dealing with agent personally liable
Section 234 : Consequence of inducing agent or principal to act on belief that principal or agent will be held exclusively liable
Section 235 : Liability of pretended agent
Section 236 : Person falsely contracting as agent not entitled to performance
Section 237 : Liability of principal inducing belief that agent's unauthorized acts were authorized
Section 238 : Effect, on agreement, of misrepresentation or fraud by agent
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