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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... growth, future prospects, and risks. Information about different types of products and services of an enterprise and its operations in different geographical areas - often called segment information - is relevant to assessing the risks and returns of a diversified or multi-locational enterprise but may not be determinable from the aggregated data. Therefore, reporting of segment information is widely regarded as necessary for meeting the needs of users of financial statements. Scope 1. This Standard should be applied in presenting general purpose financial statements. 2. The requirements of this Standard are also applicable in case of consolidated financial statements. 3. An enterprise should comply with the requirements of this Standard fully and not selectively. 4. If a single financial report contains both consolidated financial statements and the separate financial statements of the parent, segment information need be presented only on the basis of the consolidated financial statements. In the context of reporting of segment information in consolidated financial statements, the references in this Standard to any financial statement items should construed to be the relevant item .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... her segments unless the operations of the segment are primarily of a financial nature; and (c) gains on sales of investments or on extinguishment of debt unless the operations of the segment are primarily of a financial nature. 5.6 Segment expense is the aggregate of (i) the expense resulting from the operating activities of a segment that is directly attributable to the segment, and (ii) the relevant portion of enterprise expense that can be allocated on a reasonable basis to the segment, including expense relating to transactions with other segments of the enterprise. Segment expense does not include: (a) extraordinary items as defined in AS 5, Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies; (b) interest expense, including interest incurred on advances or loans from other segments, unless the operations of the segment are primarily of a financial nature; Explanation: The interest expense relating to overdrafts and other operating liabilities identified to a particular segment are not included as a part of the segment expense unless the operations of the segment are primarily of a financial nature or unless the interest is included as a pa .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... to segment reporting. 6. The factors in paragraph 5 for identifying business segments and geographical segments are not listed in any particular order. 7. A single business segment does not include products and services with significantly differing risks and returns. While there may be dissimilarities with respect to one or several of the factors listed in the definition of business segment, the products and services included in a single business segment are expected to be similar with respect to a majority of the factors. 8. Similarly, a single geographical segment does not include operations in economic environments with significantly differing risks and returns. A geographical segment may be a single country, a group of two or more countries, or a region within a country. 9. The risks and returns of an enterprise are influenced both by the geographical location of its operations (where its products are produced or where its service rendering activities are based) and also by the location of its customers (where its products are sold or services are rendered). The definition allows geographical segments to be based on either: (a) the location of production or service facilities .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... ome cases, however, a revenue, expense, asset or liability may have been allocated to segments for internal financial reporting purposes on a basis that is understood by enterprise management but that could be deemed arbitrary in the perception of external users of financial statements. Such an allocation would not constitute a reasonable basis under the definitions of segment revenue, segment expense, segment assets, and segment liabilities in this Standard. Conversely, an enterprise may choose not to allocate some item of revenue, expense, asset or liability for internal financial reporting purposes, even though a reasonable basis for doing so exists. Such an item is allocated pursuant to the definitions of segment revenue, segment expense, segment assets, and segment liabilities in this Standard. 15. Examples of segment assets include current assets that are used in the operating activities of the segment and tangible and intangible fixed assets. If a particular item of depreciation or amortisation is included in segment expense, the related asset is also included in segment assets. Segment assets do not include assets used for general enterprise or head-office purposes. Segment .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... for reporting segment information should be business segments, with secondary information reported geographically. Similarly, if the risks and returns of the enterprise are affected predominantly by the fact that it operates in different countries or other geographical areas, its primary format for reporting segment information should be geographical segments, with secondary information reported for groups of related products and services. 20. Internal organisation and management structure of an enterprise and its system of internal financial reporting to the board of directors and the chief executive officer should normally be the basis for identifying the predominant source and nature of risks and differing rates of return facing the enterprise and, therefore, for determining which reporting format is primary and which is secondary, except as provided in sub-paragraphs (a) and (b) below: (a) if risks and returns of an enterprise are strongly affected both by differences in the products and services it produces and by differences in the geographical areas in which it operates, as evidenced by a x approach to managing the company and to reporting internally to the board of directo .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... whether the risks and returns of the enterprise are more product/service driven or geographically driven and to accordingly choose business segments or geographical segments as the primary basis of segment reporting. The objective is to achieve a reasonable degree of comparability with other enterprises, enhance understandability of the resulting information, and meet the needs of investors, creditors, and others for information about product/service-related and geographically- related risks and returns. Business and Geographical Segments 24. Business and geographical segments of an enterprise for external reporting purposes should be those organisational units for which information is reported to the board of directors and to the chief executive officer for the purpose of evaluating the unit s performance and for making decisions about future allocations of resources, except as provided in paragraph 25. 25. If internal organisational and management structure of an enterprise and its system of internal financial reporting to the board of directors and the chief executive officer are based neither on individual products or services or groups of related products/services nor on geog .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... product and service lines or geographical lines rather than construct segments solely for external reporting purposes. This approach of looking to organisational and management structure of an enterprise and its internal financial reporting system to identify the business and geographical segments of the enterprise for external reporting purposes is sometimes called the ‘management approach’, and the organisational components for which information is reported internally are sometimes called ‘operating segments’. Reportable Segments 27. A business segment or geographical segment should be identified as a reportable segment if: (a) its revenue from sales to external customers and from transactions with other segments is 10 per cent or more of the total revenue, external and internal, of all segments; or (b) its segment result, whether profit or loss, is 10 per cent or more of - (i) the combined result of all segments in profit, or (ii) the combined result of all segments in loss, whichever is greater in absolute amount; or (c) its segment assets are 10 per cent or more of the total assets of all segments. 28. A business segment or a geographical segment which .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... dard requires the use, in preparing segment information, of the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the enterprise as a whole. That does not mean, however, that the enterprise accounting policies are to be applied to reportable segments as if the segments were separate stand-alone reporting entities. A detailed calculation done in applying a particular accounting policy at the enterprise-wide level may be allocated to segments if there is a reasonable basis for doing so. Pension calculations, for example, often are done for an enterprise as a whole, but the enterprise-wide figures may be allocated to segments based on salary and demographic data for the segments. 35. This Standard does not prohibit the disclosure of additional segment information that is prepared on a basis other than the accounting policies adopted for the enterprise financial statements provided that (a) the information is reported internally to the board of directors and the chief executive officer for purposes of making decisions about allocating resources to the segment and assessing its performance and (b) the basis of measurement for this additional informatio .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... rements in paragraphs 40-46 should be applied to each reportable segment based on primary reporting format of an enterprise. 40. An enterprise should disclose the following for each reportable segment: (a) segment revenue, classified into segment revenue from sales to external customers and segment revenue from transactions with other segments; (b) segment result; (c) total carrying amount of segment assets; (d) total amount of segment liabilities; (e) total cost incurred during the period to acquire segment assets that are expected to be used during more than one period (tangible and intangible fixed assets); (f) total amount of expense included in the segment result for depreciation and amortisation in respect of segment assets for the period; and (g) total amount of significant non-cash expenses, other than depreciation and amortisation in respect of segment assets, that were included in segment expense and, therefore, deducted in measuring segment result. 41. Paragraph 40 (b) requires an enterprise to report segment result. If an enterprise can compute segment net profit or loss or some other measure of segment profitability other than segment result, without arbitrary allocati .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... erstanding financial position, liquidity, and cash flows. Disclosure of segment cash flow is, therefore, encouraged, though not required. An enterprise that provides segment cash flow disclosures need not disclose depreciation and amortisation expense and non-cash expenses pursuant to sub-paragraphs (f) and (g) of paragraph 40. 46. An enterprise should present a reconciliation between the information disclosed for reportable segments and the aggregated information in the enterprise financial statements. In presenting the reconciliation, segment revenue should be reconciled to enterprise revenue; segment result should be reconciled to enterprise net profit or loss; segment assets should be reconciled to enterprise assets; and segment liabilities should be reconciled to enterprise liabilities. Secondary Segment Information 47. Paragraphs 39-46 identify the disclosure requirements to be applied to each reportable segment based on primary reporting format of an enterprise. Paragraphs 48-51 identify the disclosure requirements to be applied to each reportable segment based on secondary reporting format of an enterprise, as follows: (a) if primary format of an enterprise is business segm .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... ifferent from the location of its assets, then the enterprise should also report revenue from sales to external customers for each customer-based geographical segment whose revenue from sales to external customers is 10 per cent or more of enterprise revenue. 51. If primary format of an enterprise for reporting segment information is geographical segments that are based on location of customers, and if the assets of the enterprise are located in different geographical areas from its customers, then the enterprise should also report the following segment information for each asset-based geographical segment whose revenue from sales to external customers or segment assets are 10 per cent or more of total enterprise amounts: (a) the total carrying amount of segment assets by geographical location of the assets; and (b) the total cost incurred during the period to acquire segment assets that are expected to be used during more than one period (tangible and intangible fixed assets) by location of the assets. Illustrative Segment Disclosures 52. Illustration III attached to this Standard Illustrates the disclosures for primary and secondary formats that are required by this Standard. Oth .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... te the types of products and services included in each reported business segment and indicate the composition of each reported geographical segment, both primary and secondary, if not otherwise disclosed in the financial statements. 59. To assess the impact of such matters as shifts in demand, changes in the prices of inputs or other factors of production, and the development of alternative products and processes on a business segment, it is necessary to know the activities encompassed by that segment. Similarly, to assess the impact of changes in the economic and political environment on the risks and returns of a geographical segment, it is important to know the composition of that geographical segment. Illustration II Illustration on Determination of Reportable Segments [Paragraphs 27-29] This illustration does not form part of the Accounting Standard. Its purpose is to illustrate the application of paragraphs 27-29 of the Accounting Standard. An enterprise operates through eight segments, namely, A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. The relevant information about these segments is given in the following table (amounts in Rs.’000): A B C D E F G H Total (Segments) Total (Enterprise) .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... if they do not meet the 10% thresholds in paragraph 27, until at least 75% of total enterprise revenue is included in reportable segments. The total external revenue of Segments A, B, C, D and E, identified above as reportable segments, is Rs.2,95,000. This is less than 75% of total enterprise revenue of Rs.4,00,000. The management of the enterprise is required to designate any one or more of the remaining segments as reportable segment(s) so that the external revenue of reportable segments is at least 75% of the total enterprise revenue. Suppose, the management designates Segment H for this purpose. Now the external revenue of reportable segments is more than 75% of the total enterprise revenue. Segments A, B, C, D, E and H are reportable segments. Segments F and G will be shown as reconciling items. Illustration III Illustrative Segment Disclosures This illustration does not form part of the Accounting Standard. Its purpose is to illustrate the application of paragraphs 38-59 of the Accounting Standard. This illustration illustrates the segment disclosures that this Standard would require for a diversified multilocational business enterprise. This example is intentionally complex .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... . The office products segment manufactures labels, binders, pens, and markers and also distributes office products made by others. The publishing segment develops and sells books in the fields of taxation, law and accounting. Other operations include development of computer software for standard and specialised business applications. Financial information about business segments is presented in the above table. Geographical segments: ged on a worldwide basis, they operate in four principal geographical areas of the world. In India, its home country, the Company produces computer software development operations are conducted in India. In the European Union, the Company operates paper and office products manufacturing facilities and sales offices in the following countries: France, Belgium, Germany and the U.K. Operations in Canada and the United States are essentially similar and consist of manufacturing papers and newsprint that are sold entirely within those two countries. Operations in Indonesia include the production of paper pulp and the manufacture of writing and publishing pape rs and office products, almost all of which is sold outside Indonesia, both to other segments of th .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... the Company incurred an uninsured loss of Rs.3,00,000 caused by earthquake damage to a paper mill in India during the previous year. Illustration IV Summary of Required Disclosure This illustration does not form part of the Accounting Standard. Its purpose is to summarise the disclosures required by paragraphs 38-59 for each of the three possible primary segment reporting formats. Figures in parentheses refer to paragraph numbers of the relevant paragraphs in the text. PRIMARY FORMAT IS BUSINESS SEGMENTS PRIMARY FORMAT IS GEOGRAPHICAL SEGMENTS BY LOCATION OF ASSETS PRIMARY FORMAT IS GEOGRAPHICAL SEGMENTS BY LOCATION OF CUSTOMERS Required Primary Disclosures Required Primary Disclosures Required Primary Disclosures Revenue from external customers by business segment [40(a)] Revenue from external customers by location of assets [40(a)] Revenue from external customers by location of customers [40(a)] Revenue from transactions with other segments by business segment [40(a)] Revenue from transactions with other segments by location of assets [40(a)] Revenue from transactions with other segments by location of customers [40(a)] Segment result by business segment [40(b)] Segment result by .....

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AS - 17 - Segment Reporting - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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