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2015 (7) TMI 1064 - ITAT Chandigarh

2015 (7) TMI 1064 - ITAT Chandigarh - TMI - Long term capital gains - assessment of LTCG in the hands of the appellant assessee OR the Punjabi Co-operative House Building Society Ltd., Mohali in which the appellant is a member - transfer u/s 2(47) - vacant land - Possession given by the society to the developer under joint development agreement - Advance Received or Actual Sales Held that:- Identical issues came up for consideration of Tribunal in case of Charanjit Singh Atwal Vs. ITO [2013 (8 .....

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e Society can enter into the JDA. Thus it is clear that the Society has entered into JDA on behalf of the Members. It is the members who are owning the plots and the Society was only a facilitator. It becomes clear from the JDA that payment for consideration was to be made to an individual plot holder and in fact consideration was mentioned in terms of per Member. Each Member holding 500sqyd plot was to receive a sum of ₹ 82,50,000/- and one fully furnished flat measuring 2250 sqft and the .....

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iety being only a facilitator or Post office. - Decided against the assessee. - ITA No.608/Chd/2014 - Dated:- 15-7-2015 - SHRI BHAVNESH SAINI, JUDICIAL MEMBER AND SHRI T.R. SOOD, ACCOUNTANT MEMBER Appellant By : Sh. N.K. Sahi Respondent By : Sh. Manjit Singh ORDER PER T.R.SOOD, A.M. The appeal by the Assessee is directed against the order dated 28/03/2014 passed by the CIT(A), Patiala. 2. In this appeal Assessee has raised the following ground which are as under : 1. The Ld. CIT(A) has erred on .....

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sessee filed return of income declaring income amounting to ₹ 11,16,822/- including long term capital gain of ₹ 8,21,655/-. This return was processed under section 143(1). Later on income return was transferred to ACIT, Circle Sangrur because income was more than ₹ 5 lacs. A notice under section 148 was issued and served upon the assessee. Meanwhile assessee had expired and therefore after the enquiries legal heirs Smt. Shiv Dev Kaur(wife), Sh. Harinder Singh (son) and Smt. Cha .....

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ort "Society"]. The Society was owner of 21.2 acres of land in Village Kandal District Mohali. The Society had entered into development agreement with M/s Tata Housing Development Company Ltd. Mumbai and HASH Builders (P) Ltd. Assessee was owner of a plot measuring 500 sq. yd. and assessee was to receive 82,50,000/- in cash and Flat measuring 2250 sq. ft. to be constructed by M/s Tata Housing Development Company Ltd. to be valued @ ₹ 4500/- sq. ft. Since assessee had not declared .....

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A). 5. Before us Ld. Counsel for the assessee fairly conceded that issue is squarely covered against the assessee by the order of Tribunal in case of Charanjit Singh Atwal Vs. I.T.O & others in ITA No. 448/Chd/2011 and others. 6. On the other hand Ld. DR strongly supported the order of Ld. CIT(A) 7. After considering the rival submissions carefully we find that identical issues came up for consideration of Tribunal in case of Charanjit Singh Atwal Vs. ITO (supra). This issue was adjudicated .....

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45. [(1)] Any profits or gains arising from the transfer of a capital asset effected in the previous year shall, save as otherwise provided in sections [54, 54B, [ [54D, [54E, [54EA, 54EB,] 54F [ 54G and 54H], be chargeable to income-tax under the head Capital gains , and shall be deemed to be the income of the previous year in which the transfer took place. 28 The plain reading of the above provision would show that charging an item of income under the head Capital gains require three ingredie .....

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ure the whole of consideration arising on transfer of such assets. We shall deal with each of the aspect in detail at appropriate time. 29. Apart from charging provisions u/s 45 another important provision is section 48 which deals with the mode of computation and relevant portion reads as under:- 48. The income chargeable under the head Capital gains shall be computed, by deducting from the full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the capital asset the .....

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1. The expression transfer has been defined u/s reads as under:- 2 (47) [ transfer , in relation to a capital asset, includes,- (i)the sale , exchange or relinquishment of the asset ; or (ii)the extinguishment of any rights therein ; or (iii)the compulsory acquisition thereof under any law ; or 2 (47) of the Act which (iv)in a case where the asset is converted by the owner thereof into, or is treated by him as, stock-in-trade of a business carried on by him, such conversion or treatment ;] [or] .....

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n any other manner whatsoever) which has the effect of transferring, or enabling the enjoyment of, any immovable property. Explanation.-For the purposes of sub-clauses (v) and (vi), immovable property shall have the same meaning as in clause (d) of section 269UA;] Clauses (v) & (vi) to section 2(47) of the Act have been inserted by Finance Act, 1987 w.e.f. 1.4.1988. The purpose of this insertion has been explained by CBDT in Circular No. 495 dated 22.9.1987. The relevant part 11.1 and 11.2 o .....

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tion Act, 1908. Such arrangements confer the privileges of ownership without transfer of title in the building and are a common mode of acquiring flats particularly in multi-storeyed constructions in big cites. The definition also does not cover cases where possession is allowed to be taken or retained in part performance of a contract, of the nature referred to in section 53A of Transfer of Property Act, 1882. New sub-clauses (v) & (vi) have been inserted in section2(47) to prevent avoidanc .....

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aking construction. The legal ownership in such cases continues to be with the transferor. 32 Before insertion of the clause (v) & (vi) to section 2(47) of the Act, the position of law was that unless and until a sale deed was executed for transfer of immovable property, the same could not be construed as transfer for the purpose of charging capital gain tax. This was particularly so in the light of various judgments particularly the judgment of Hon'ble Apex Court in the case of Alapati .....

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per sale deeds. This was being done because there was restriction on sale of properties in various towns e.g. in case of lease hold plots and flats in Delhi if the same were to be transferred, permission was required to be taken from the Government / DDA and transferor was required to pay 50% of the market value - cost (i.e. unearned increase) to the Government. To avoid such payments and / or also to avoid the payment of stamp duty or cumbersome procedure of obtaining permission, some propertie .....

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ught in to taxation net. However, interpretations of these clauses has led to lot of litigation and the main point of litigation was that at what point of time the possession can be said to have been given. In the present case, the Revenue has mainly relied on two decisions namely (i) Chaturbhuj Dwarkadas Kapadia v CIT 260 ITR 491 (Bom.) and; (ii) Authority for Advance Ruling (AAR) New Delhi in the case of Jasbir Singh Sarkaria 294 ITR 196. 33. In the case of Chaturbhuj Dwarkadas Kapadia v CIT ( .....

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s / regulations framed by local authorities. For this purpose, the assessee also agreed to execute a limited power of attorney authorizing Floreat to deal with the property and also obtain permissions and approvals from various authorities. Under clause 11 of the agreement, it was provided that after Floreat was given an irrevocable license to enter upon the assessee s share of property and after Floret investment have obtained all necessary approvals, the Floret was entitled to demolish various .....

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missions namely (i) clearance from CRZ Authority dated February 7, 1996; (ii) letter from ULC for redevelopment of property dated April 26, 1995. Other permissions were also obtained during the financial year ending March 31, 1996 relevant to assessment year 1996-97. By March, 31, 1996, Floreat had paid almost the entire consideration expect for a small sum of ₹ 9,98,000/-. However, the commencement certificate permitting construction of the building was issued on November 15, 1996. The po .....

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ature referred to in section 53A of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, and (ii) any transaction entered into in any manner which has the effect of transferring or enabling the enjoyment of any immovable property. Therefore, in these two cases capital gains would be taxable in the year in which such transactions are entered into, even if the transfer of the immovable property is not effective or complete under the general law. Under section 2(47)(v) any transaction involving allowing of possessi .....

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tly, the transferee should be ready and willing to perform his part of the contract. Even arrangements confirming privileges of ownership without transfer of title could fall under section 2 (47) (v). Section 2 (47) (v) was introduced in the Act from the assessment year 1988-89 because prior thereto, in most cases, it was argued on behalf of the assessee that no transfer took place till execution of the conveyance. Assessees used to enter into agreements for developing properties with builders a .....

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test had not been applied by the Department. No reason had been given why that test had not been applied, particularly when the agreement in question, read as a whole, showed that it was a development agreement. Once under clause 8 of the agreement a limited power of attorney was intended to be given to the developer to deal with the property, then the date of the contract, viz., August 18, 1994, would be the relevant date to decide the date of transfer under section 2(47)(v) and, in which even .....

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on 53A of the Transfer of Property Act, and (ii) any transaction entered into in any manner which has the effect of transferring or enabling the enjoyment of any immovable property (see section 269UA(d)). Therefore, in these two cases capital gains would be taxable in the year in which such transactions are entered into, even if the transfer of the immovable property is not effective or complete under the general law (see Kanga and Palkhivala s Law and Practice of Income-tax-VIII edition, page 7 .....

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session of an immovable property (s. 269UA(d)) to be taken or retained in part performance of a contract of the nature referred to in s.53A of the transfer of Property Act 1882, and (b) any transaction entered into in any manner which has the effect of transferring, or enabling the enjoyment of, any immovable property (s. 269UA(d)). Therefore in these two cases capital gains would be taxable in the year in which such transactions are entered into, even if the transfer of the immovable property i .....

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f. Firstly it is observed that provision of section 2(47)(v) of the Act were not invoked by the Revenue itself. This becomes clear from the following para: It was argued on behalf of the assessee that there was no effective transfer till grant of irrevocable licence. In this connection, the judgment of the Hon'ble Supreme Court were cited on behalf of the assessee, but all those judgment were prior to introduction of the concept of deemed transfer u/s 2(47)(v). In this matter, the agreement .....

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nly to make profits by completing the building and, therefore, no interest in the land stands created in their favour under such agreements. That such agreements are only a mode of remunerating the builder for his services of constructing the building (see Gurudev Developers v. Kurla Konkan Niwas Co-operative Housing Society [2003] 3 Mah LJ 131). It is precisely for this reason that the Legislature has introduced section 2(47)(v) read with section 45 which indicates that capital gains is taxable .....

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unal as well as the Department have come to the conclusion that the transfer took place during the accounting year ending March 31,1996, as substantial payments were effected during that year and substantial permissions were obtained. In such cases of development agreements, one cannot go by substantial performance of a contract. In such cases, the year of chargeability is the year in which the contract is executed. This is in view of section 2 (47)(v) of the Act. Secondly it is mentioned in the .....

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same cannot fall in the year ending 31.3.1996. From the dates it is evident that from the very next day, i.e., April 1, 1997, from the end of the financial year ending on March 31, 1996, the builder was using the well water against payment of relevant charges to the assessee. 37 Thus it is very clear that in cases where an arrangement had been entered into by an assessee in terms of clause (v) of Section 2(47) which has effect of handing over the possession then the transfer is said to have been .....

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decision of the Hon'ble Bombay High Court in the case of Chaturbhuj Dwarkadas Kapadia v CIT (supra) does not show that the date of agreement itself constitute the transfer. Again there is no force even in the contention that in that case it was ultimately decided that capital gain taxes is chargeable in Assessment year 1999-2000 because of the reasons given in above noted paras particularly because the Revenue itself never invoked the provisions of section 2 (47) (v) of the Act and held it .....

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ar 1999-2000. It is quite clear that ratio of the above decision is that in case of any arrangements or transactions whereby the other party becomes entitled to enjoy the property then that date of such transaction itself needs to be construed as the date of transfer. 39. The second relevant decision cited by the Revenue is by Authority for Advance Ruling (AAR) New Delhi in the case of Jasbir Singh Sarkaria (supra). In that case the assessee was co-owner of agricultural land measuring about 27.7 .....

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ke 84% of the built up area and balance 16% would belong to assessee and other co-owner. The consideration for the agreement was taken as the built up area to be handed over to the owners free of cost. The owners were entitled to visit the site in order to review the progress of the project. It was clarified by clause 18 that ownership would remain exclusively with the owners till it vests with both the parties as per their respective shares on the completion of the project. The other clauses an .....

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the Director of Town Planting to Developer of land for the purpose of constructing residential flats subject to payment of certain charges and compliance of other conditions. It was further stated in the agreement that on fulfillment of the requirement in the letter of intent, owners will have to execute irrevocable general power of attorney in favour of the Developer authorizing the Developer to took and sell the dwelling units out of developer s share and collect the money for the same. Howev .....

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was payable by the Developer to the owners in six installments from March 06, 2008. The installments could be extended subject to payment of interest and further subject to maximum extension of three months. There were various other clauses which are not relevant for our purposes. The question arose whether capital gain accrue / arise to the assessee during the financial year 2006-07 relevant to assessment year 2007-08 or during financial year 2007-08 relevant to assessment year 2008-09. 40. On .....

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noted at this juncture. Firstly, the expression used is arising which is not to be equated with the expression received . Both these expressions and in addition thereto, the expression accrue are used in the Income-tax Act either collectively or separately according to the context and nature of the charging provision. The second point which deserves notice is that by a deeming provision, the profits or gains that have arisen would be treated as the income of the previous year in which the transf .....

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apital gains shall by fiction be deemed to be the income of the previous year in which the transfer took place . Since this is a statutory fiction, the actual year in which the sale price was received, whether it was one year, two years, three years, four years etc. previous to the previous year of transfer, is beside the point. The entirety of the sum or sums received in any earlier year or years would be regarded as the capital gains arising in the previous year of transfer. In the words of se .....

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ard Circular No. 495 (which we have already discussed earlier). The Hon'ble Authority has discussed various implications of clause (v) of section 2 (47) and also implication of section 53A of the Transfer of Property Act as well as observations of Hon'ble Bombay High Court in the case of Chaturbhuj Dwarkadas Kapadia v CIT (supra). The Authority observed that to understand this provision properly meaning of possession has to be understood properly and went on to discuss the meaning of ter .....

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ction 2(47). Should it only mean the right to exclusive possession-which the transferee can maintain in his own right to the exclusion of everyone including the transferor from whom he derived the possession ? Such a criterion will be satisfied only after the entire sale consideration is paid and the transferor has forfeited his right to exercise acts of possession over the land or to resume possession. In our view, there is no warrant to place such a restricted interpretation on the word posses .....

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marize the meanings of the term possession in ordinary language, in all areas of law and in all legal systems, is to ask for the impossible . In the above case of Anil Kumar Bhunja [1979] 4 SCC 274, Sarkaria J. speaking for a three-judge Bench also referred to the comments of Dias and Hughes in their book on Jurisprudence that if a topic ever suffered too much theorizing it is that of possession . Much of the difficulty is caused by the fact that possession is not a pure legal concept, as pointe .....

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s possession, in fact, as a relationship between a person and a thing. According to the learned author, the test for determining whether a person is in possession of anything is whether he is in general control of it . In Salmond s Jurisprudence, at paragraph 54, we find an illuminating discussion on immediate and mediate possession . The learned author states in law one person may possess a thing for and on account of some one else. In such a case the latter is in possession by the agency of hi .....

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in the following words : It was a maxim of the civil law that two persons could not be in possession of the same thing at the same time. As a general proposition this is true : for exclusiveness is of the essence of possession. Two adverse claims of exclusive use cannot both be effectually realized at the same time. Claims, however, which are not adverse, and which are not, therefore, mutually destructive, admit of concurrent realization. Hence, there are several possible cases of duplicate poss .....

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cise general control over the property and to make use of it for the intended purpose, the mere fact that the owner has also the right to enter the property to oversee the development work or to ensure performance of the terms of agreement does not introduce any incompatibility. The concurrent possession of the owner who can exercise possessory rights to a limited extent and for a limited purpose and that of the buyer/developer who has a general control and custody of the land can very well be r .....

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ing the definition of transfer for the purpose of capital gains may be defeated. The reason is this: the owner of the property can very well contend, as is being contended in the present case, that the developer will have such exclusive possession in his own right only after the entire amount is paid to the owner to the last pie. There is then a possibility of staggering the last instalment of a small amount to a distant date, may be, when the entire building complex gets ready. Even if some amo .....

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f flats to the prospective purchasers will get delayed. At the same time, the other side of the picture cannot be over-looked. There is a possibility of the owner with the connivance of the transferee postponing the payment of capital gains tax on the ostensible ground that the entire consideration has not been received and some balance is left. The mischief sought to be remedied, will then perpetuate. We are, therefore of the view that possession given to the developers need not ripen itself in .....

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the contract. The date of that transaction determines the date of transfer. The actual date of taking physical possession or the instances of possessory acts exercised is not very relevant. The ascertainment of such date, if called for, leads to complicated inquiries, which may frustrate the objective of the legislative provision. It is enough if the transferee has, by virtue of that transaction, a right to enter upon and exercise acts of possession effectively pursuant to the covenants in the .....

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probed into especially when it is not his case that the developer was not allowed to take possession in terms of the agreement. 42. After the above discussion, the Authority discussed the facts of the case before it. It was observed that paragraph 18 of the Collaboration Agreement provides that on issuance of letter of intent, the owners will allow and permit the Developer to enter upon and survey the land, erect site / sales office, carry out the site development work and do activities for adv .....

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t failing under their share. This was possible only after deposit of requisite charges etc. and perhaps there was litigation regarding ownership of land which has also to be withdrawn. The Authority has discussed the significance of general power of attorney and the terms of the general power of attorney at para 33 and the relevant portion of the same is as under:- A copy of the irrevocable GPA executed in terms of paragraph 15 of the agreement has been furnished by the applicant. It authorizes .....

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ney for meeting the cost of construction on the security and mortgage of land falling to the developer s share. The other clauses in the GPA are not relevant for our purpose. The GPA unequivocally grants to the developer a bundle of possessory rights. The acts of management, control and supervision of property are explicitly mentioned. It is fairly clear that the GPA is not a mere licence to enter the land for doing some preliminary acts in relation to the development work. The power of control .....

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econd and supplemental agreement by virtue of which the entire developed property including the owners share has been agreed to be sold to the developer or his nominees for valuable money consideration, the developer has a vital stake in the entire property. As far as the quality of possession is concerned, he is on a higher pedestal than a developer who apportions built up area with the owner. Even if he is an agent in one sense in the course of developing the land, that agency is coupled with .....

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in favour of the developer must be regarded as a transaction in the eye of law which allows possession to be taken in part performance of the contract for transfer of the property in question…….. 43 Thus, the above clearly shows that irrevocable general power of attorney which leads to over all control of the property in the hands of the Developer, even if that means no exclusive possession by the Developer would constitute transfer. It can be said that it has to be construed as p .....

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at letter of intent should be procured not later than March 8, 2006. In case of failure to do so the agreement shall stand terminated. Therefore, obtaining the letter of intent was the crucial factor. It has been explained in the decision that the letter of intent basically is a license issued by the Director of Town and Country Planning, Haryana which gives permission for construction of the flats. The other crucial point was execution of irrevocable of GPA which was executed on May 8, 2006 whi .....

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der: The following is the summary of conclusions: 1. Where the agreement for transfer of immovable property by itself does not provide for immediate transfer of possession, the date of entering into the agreement cannot be considered to be the date of transfer within the meaning of clause (v) of section 2 (47) of the Income-Tax Act. 2. To attract clause (v) of section 2(47), it is not necessary that the entire sale consideration up to the last installment should be received by the owner. 3. In t .....

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year relevant to the assessment year 2007-08 and the capital gains must be held to have arisen during that year. Incidentally, it may be mentioned that during the said year, i.e., financial year 2006-07, a final license was granted and the applicant/owners received nearly 2/3rds of the consideration. 45. Legal position has been discussed in above noted paras and now let us discuss the facts of the case in the light of above noted legal position. 46 Undisputed facts of the case are that the asses .....

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ommercial project and do development as per the applicable municipal building bye-laws in force and accordingly a bid was invited through advertisement in the Tribune dated 31.5.2006. HASH a developer, approached the Society with proposal for development of the property. Since Hash did not have sufficient means to develop the property, Hash had approached THDC for development of the property by constructing the building and/or structures to be used for interalia residential, public use and comme .....

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allments by Hash directly in favour of the members and one flat with super area of 2250 sqf to be constructed by THDC. The members who held the plot of 1000sqyd were to receive a consideration of ₹ 1,65,00,000/- and two flats consisting of 2250sqft to be constructed by the THDC. It was further resolved to enter into a JDA with THDC/HASH. It was also resolved to execute irrevocable Power of attorney by the Society in favour of THDC for this purpose. This resolution was ultimately ratified i .....

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property falls under Forest Area under the Punjab Land Preservation Act. It has been further recited that the Society has agreed to accept the proposals of Hash and further executed this agreement with THDC/HASH. Hash was responsible to make payment to the owner as described earlier and the flats were to be provided by THDC. In case of Hash fails to make the payment, THDC agreed to make the payments. Copy of the resolution of the Executive Committee of the Society dated 4.1.2007 as well as reso .....

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lease, license, sell and transfer the property along with any and all the construction, premises, hereditaments, easements, trees thereon in favour of THDC for the purpose of development, construction, mortgage, sale, transfer, lease, license and or exploitation for full utilization of the Property (Rights) and to execute all the documents necessary to carry out, facilitate and enforce the Rights in the Property including to execute Lease Agreement, License Agreements, Construction Contracts, Su .....

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erwise, and before any court of law (the Development Rights ). The owner hereby hands over the original title deeds of the Property as mentioned in the list Annexed hereto and marked as Annexure IV and physical, vacant possession of the property has been handed over to THDC simultaneous to the execution and registration of this agreement to develop the same as set out herein. It is hereby agreed and confirmed that what is stated in the recitals hereinabove, shall be deemed to be declarations and .....

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of Local Bodies, Punjab/Punjab Urban Planning and Development Authority (PUDA) or any other Competent Authority. 2.3 The owner hereby irrevocably and unequivocally grants and assigns all its Development Rights in the property to THDC to develop the property and undertake the project at its own costs, efforts and expenses whereupon the Developer shall be entitled to apply for and obtain necessary sanctions, licenses and permissions from all the concerned authorities for the commencement, developm .....

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multaneously on receipt of Payment as set out in Clause 4.1 above, execute an irrevocable Special Power of Attorney to THDC for development of the property authorizing THDC to do all lawful acts, deeds, matters and things pertaining to the development of the property for the project along with interalia right to mortgage the property and/or premises, sell, lease, license the premises and receive/collect monies in it s name in respect of the same and approach interact, communicate with the Compet .....

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this Agreement and execute all other necessary documents and papers to complete the aforesaid transaction. 9.3 That all the original title deeds pertaining to property as mentioned in Annexure IV has been handed over to THDC by the owner at the time of signing of this Agreement and in furtherance of the common interest of the Parties for the development of the Project and except the Sale Transaction made by the Owner in favour of THDC as et out in Clause 4.1 above. THDC hereby undertake and ass .....

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he owner herein i.e. The Punjabi Coop House Building Society Ltd. along with all its ninety six (96) members have given their express, free and clear consent in writing in the form of an Affidavit/No Objection Certificate/Consent Letter whereby the Developers have been allowed to develop the property in accordance with the Project and that THDC shall be entitled to transfer the rights obtained under this agreement to any third party and to get the development / construction work completed on suc .....

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vocable Special Power of Attorney has also been executed by the Society in favour of the developers i.e. THDC. (Copy of which is available at pages 40 to 52 of the paper book in case of Society in ITA No. 556 of 2012 as discussed earlier in para 25 (complete copy of Supplementary Power of Attorney was not available in the paper book of the assessee, therefore, reference was made to the paper book in case of the Society). 52 The first major contention of the ld. counsel of the assessee is that th .....

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A as reproduced above clearly show that original title deed which have been mentioned along with the possession in para 2.1 which according to the ld. counsel of the assessee were to be handed over simultaneously to execution and registration of the JDA, is not correct because clause 9.3 clearly mention that original title deed of the property have been handed over to the THDC at the time of signing of this agreement because clause 9.3 there is no mention about registration of JDA. 53 Special Po .....

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deeds) as set out in Clause 4.1 (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) and the Owner confirms, undertakes, declares and binds itself not to revoke the same for any reason whatsoever out of its own will and discretion without obtaining a specific prior written consent of THDC or any of its duly constituted attorneys. Through this Power of Attorney various powers have been given like to assign, file, amend etc. various plans, designs to represent before various authorities, to appoint architect, Lawyers. Some .....

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mmercialization of the Property/Premises. (t) To amalgamate the Property with any other contiguous, adjacent and adjoining land sand properties wherein development and/or other right, benefits and interests are acquired and/or proposed to be acquired and developed or proposed to be developed by THDC and/or their associate and/or group concerns/s and/or utilize the FSI, FAR, DR and TDR of the contiguous, adjacent and adjoining lands for the purpose of constructing buildings and/or structures ther .....

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ons, affidavits, bonds, deeds, documents, etc. as may be required by the authorities concerned for vesting such a part or portion in such authority and to admit execution thereof before the concerned Competent Authority and get the same registered with the concerned sub-registrar. (y) Reasonable opportunity of hearing shall be given to mortgage, encumber or create a charge on the Property or any part or portion thereof and execute the necessary security documents in favour of any bank/financial .....

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y other manner for such price as the Attorneys may deem fit and proper. To collect and receive from the purchased, transferees, lessees, licensees of the Premises, monies/price and/or consideration and/or maintenance charges and to sign and execute and/or give proper and lawful discharge for the receipts. (bb) To execute from time to time all the writing, agreement, deeds etc. in respect of the premises which maybe constructed on the Property and also to execute and sign conveyance, transfer or .....

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her entity that may be formed for such purpose. (dd) To issue letter of lien/NOC s and to sign documents on behalf of the Owner as required by the prospective buyers/lending instructions to create a charge on the allotted premises. (gg) To look after and maintain the Property and the Premises constructed thereon till its transfer in favour of the Co-operative Society or Limited Company or any other Organisation. 54 It is pertinent to note that power/authorization which have been given by the Soc .....

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t of the Project as well as security for the money paid by the owner. Through clause 6.24 it was agreed that developer THDC/HASH was always permitted by owner to amalgamate the property with any other contiguous, adjacent and adjoining land and the properties wherein developmental and or other rights, benefits and interest were acquired by the developer or would be acquired in future. This clearly shows that the Society was under obligation in terms of agreement itself to allow the developer to .....

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early understood by the parties that requisite environmental clearances had to be obtained before start of the project. Clause 10 again casts specific obligation on the owner Society to give consent to THDC/HASH to raise finance for the development and completion of the project on the Security of the property by way of mortgaging the property. Thus whatever power/authorization have been given through irrevocable special Power of Attorney are emanating from the terms and conditions agreed to amon .....

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how the developer could amalgamate the project with another project which may be acquired latter in the adjoining area. Through clause (w) THDC was authorized to hand over the possession of property or portion thereof to the authority to whom the same is required. In large Housing Society Projects sometimes Municipal authorities takes some portion of land for the purpose of roads, parks or other general utility purposes like installation of electricity transformers and before sanctioning the pla .....

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on such powers cannot be given. Clause (aa) clearly authorized the THDC to sell, transfer, lease, license the premises which were to be constructed on ownership basis and further to receive moneys against such sale etc. and to issue final receipt. Nowhere it is mentioned in this clause that such sale deeds were to be singed by the Society as confirming party. In the absence of possession it is just not possible for the developer to sell and transfer the premises which were to be constructed. Thi .....

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ontrol the property and make use of it not only for the purpose of development but also for the purpose of amalgamation, sale, mortgage etc. When the above clauses are compared on touch stone of the discussion on possession in para 26 to 28 in the case of Jasbir Singh Sarkaria (supra) which we have reproduced above, it becomes clear that the possession has been given. 56 In that discussion, it has been clearly mentioned that the position contemplated by clause (v) of section 2(47) of the Act nee .....

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h has been made in para 33 regarding Power of Attorney (which has been reproduced earlier). In that case the powers were given to enter upon and survey the land, prepare lay out plans, submit building plan for sanction with the appropriate authorities to control, manage and look after and supervise the property, to obtain water and sewerage, disposal and electricity connection. In that case the developer was authorized to mortgage the property to obtain money for meeting the cost of construction .....

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THDC in addition to powers which have been described in that judgment and Power of Attorney has been described as irrevocable in clause 6.7 of JDA. Therefore, it is clear that the assessee s plea that the possession was to be given only at the time of registration of the JDA, is not correct. Once irrevocable power was given then it cannot be said that the possession was not given. The issue regarding revocation of irrevocable Power of Attorney and cancellation of the JDA would be discussed later .....

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e was applied and initiated in Heydon s case (1584) 3 Co. Rep 7a. This Rule was upheld by the Constitution Bench of Hon'ble Apex Court in case of Bengal Immunity Co. Ltd. V State of Bihar (1955) 2 SCR 603 for consideration of Article 286 of the Constitution. It has been held in case of Dr. Baliram Waman Hiray V. Mr. Justice B. Lentin and another, 176 ITR 1 that for understanding amendment in the Act, perhaps Heydon s Rule is best rule for interpretation of such amendment. We find that withou .....

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supra): The following principles enunciated in Heydon s caase (1584) 3 Co. Rep 7a and firmly established, are still in full force and effect: that for the sure and true interpretation of all statutes in generals (be they penal or beneficial, restrictive or enlarging of the common law), four things are to be discerned and considered: (1) what was the common law before the making of the Act; (2) what was the mischief and defect for which the common law did not provide; (3) what remedy Parliament h .....

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gislation and to the judicial interpretation thereof. 58 Going by the Heydon s Rule of interpretation if we analyze the purpose of clause (v) of Section 2(47) then it would emerge that law before making the amendment was that capital gain could be charged only if a transfer has been effected and transfer was interpreted by various Courts including the decision of Hon'ble Supreme Court in case of Alapati Venkatramian V CIT, 57 ITR 185 (SC) that proper conveyance of the property has been made .....

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op hole in the law. Therefore, considering the purpose of insertion of clause (v) and (vi) of section 2(47) and various clauses of Power of Attorney and JDA it becomes absolutely clear that the Society has handed over the possession of the property to THDC/HASH. 59 Second important contention on behalf of the assessee is that JDA was executed on 25.2.2007 and if possession was given then how the assessee was having possession in terms of later sale deeds executed on 2.3.2007 and 25.4.2007. The S .....

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ari dated 23.2.2007. 60 According to the ld. counsel of the assessee if Society had already given the possession then the Society would not have / had possession on 2.3.2007 of the land. At face value this argument looks attractive but when examined in terms of possession which has been explained in case of Jasbir Singh Sarkaria (supra), actual reality will come forward. In this judgment concept of concurrent possession has also been discussed and following extract of paragraph 55 of Salmond s J .....

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ble cases of duplicate possession. 1 Mediate and immediate possession Cross-objections-exist in respect of the same thing as already explained. 2 Two or more persons may possess the same thing in common; just as they may owe it in common. The concurrent possession of the owner who can exercise possession right to a limited extent and for a limited purpose and that of the buyer/developer who has a general control and custody of the land can very well be reconciled. 61 In further discussion in par .....

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ossession. What the Society was having is only ownership right and the possession was only concurrent as the possessary right. Further it is a standard clause in the conveyance deed and it does not prove or indicate anything except that a portion of land measuring 3.08 acres, has been sold / conveyed to the developer. In the light of this position, this contention is rejected. 62 We find no force in the next contention of the ld. counsel of the assessee that possession if at all was given should .....

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ng area which may be acquired later, right to mortgage etc. clearly show that rights given by the Society are much more larger than what is covered in the term license . 64 Fourth contention is that the money received at the time of execution of JDA can be termed as advance and whatever money has been received has already been shown as capital gain. We find no force in this submission because Section 45 which has been extracted above clearly provide for taxing of profits and gains arising from t .....

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re detail and try to understand why the whole of the consideration is required to be taxed. At the cost of repetition let us again reproduce the observations of the Ld. authority in case of Jasbir Singh Sarkaria (supra) which we have earlier extracted at para 40 and the relevant portion is as under: 4 0 . On the above, the Hon'ble Authority after referring to the provisions of section 45 and observed as under:- ……….The section can be analysed thus : (a) transfer of a cap .....

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are used in the Income-tax Act either collectively or separately according to the context and nature of the charging provision. The second point which deserves notice is that by a deeming provision, the profits or gains that have arisen would be treated as the income of the previous year in which the transfer took place. That means, the income on account of arisal of capital gain should be charged to tax in the same previous year in which the transfer was effected or deemed to have taken place. .....

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received, whether it was one year, two years, three years, four years etc. previous to the previous year of transfer, is beside the point. The entirety of the sum or sums received in any earlier year or years would be regarded as the capital gains arising in the previous year of transfer. . . . . In the words of section 45, the capital gains arising from the transfer 'shall be the income of the previous year in which the transfer took place'. So, the payments of consideration stipulated .....

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in the following manner: 13. In T.V. Sundaram Iyengar and Sons Ltd. V. CIT [1959] 37 ITR 26, a Division Bench of the Madras High Court while construing section 12 B of the Indian Income-tax Act, 1922 clarified the import of the expression arise as follows Section 12B does not require that profits should have been actually received. It is sufficient if they have arisen. Throughout the Income-tax Act the words accrue and arise are used in contradistinction to the word receive and indicate a right .....

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does not therefore admit of any doubt that the actual receipt of the entire sale consideration during the year of transfer is not necessary for the purpose of computing capital gains. Further the expression arising has been defined in the Advanced Law Lexicon by P. Ramanatha Aiyer edited by Y.V. Chandrachud, Former Chief Justice of India: The words Arising or accruing describe a right to receive profits, and that there must be a debt owed by somebody. Ld. Commissioner of Income Tax, West Bengal- .....

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rtained. The basic conception is that he must have acquired a right to receive the income. Bhogilal V Income Tax Ld. Commissioner, AIR 1956 Bom 411, 414 (Income Tax Act (11 of 1992) Ss. 16(1) and (3)} 67 The combined reading of these two definitions show that it (i.e. accrual) is not equal to the receipt of income. In fact it is a stage before the point of time when the income becomes receivable. In other words, once the vested rights come to a person then it can be said that such right or incom .....

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connotes growth or accumulation with a tangible shape so as to be receivable. In a secondary sense, the two words together mean to become a present and enforceable right and to become a present right of demand . In the Act, the two words are used synonymously with each other to denote the same idea or ideas very similar, and the difference lies only in this that one is more appropriate than the other, when applied, to a particular case. It will indeed be difficult to distinguish between the two .....

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essee which is required to be taxed but the consideration which has accrued to the assessee is also required to be taxed. In view of this, this contention is rejected. 69 The fifth contention made by the Ld. Counsel for the assessee was that since section 53A of the Transfer of Property Act itself has undergone amendment w.e.f. 24.9.2001 by which the agreement referred to in that section is required to be registered and therefore, now in section 2 (47) (v) only the amended provisions can be read .....

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ms necessary to constitute the transfer can be ascertained with reasonable certainty, and the transferee has, in part performance of the contract, taken possession of the property or any part thereof, or the transferee, being already in possession, continues in possession in part performance of the contract and has done some act in furtherance of the contract, and the transferee has performed or is willing to perform his part of the contract, then, notwithstanding that the contract, [***]where t .....

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hat it provides a safety measure or a shield in the hands of the transferee to protect the possession of any property which has been given by the transferor as lawful possession under a particular agreement of sale. This position of law was incorporated in the definition of transfer by insertion of clauses (v) & (vi) in section 2(47) of the Act. It is important to note that clause (v) uses the expression contract of the nature referred to in section 53A of T.P. Act, therefore, clearly the id .....

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been omitted which means for the purpose of possession u/s 53A of T.P. Act, a person has to prove that possession has been given under a registered agreement. In other words, now u/s 53A of T.P. Act, the agreement referred is required to be registered. This requirement cannot be read in clause (v) of section 2 (47) because that refers only to the contract of the nature of section 53A of T.P. Act without going into the controversy whether such agreement is required to be registered or not. The Ld .....

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e purpose of MAT provision what is the meaning of past losses or unabsorbed depreciation. It was found that in explanation to section 115J clause (iv), the following expression was used:- (iv) the amount of the loss or the amount of depreciation which would be required to be set off against the profit of the relevant previous year as if the provisions of clause (b) of the first proviso to sub section (i) of section 205 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) are applicable. 71 The Hon'ble Ape .....

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the later. When an earlier Act or certain of its provisions are incorporated by reference into a later Act, the provisions so incorporated become part and parcel of the later Act as if they had been "bodily transposed into it". The effect of incorporation is admirably stated by LORD ESHER, M.R. : "If a subsequent Act brings into itself by reference some of the clauses of a former Act, the legal effect of that, as has often been held, is to write those Sections into the new Act as .....

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l Act from which it was taken, and that consequently it is perfectly legitimate to refer to all the rest of that Act in order to ascertain what the Sections meant, though those other Sections are not incorporated in the new Act. (p.244) 72 On the basis of above observation, it was held that meaning of past losses or unabsorbed depreciation has to be taken same as was defined in the Companies Act. In this case it is clear that provision itself refers to clause (b) of sub section (1) of section 20 .....

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defined under section 53A of Transfer of Property Act, 1882 . Further, it is settled position of law that any interpretation which could render a particular provision redundant should be avoided. If the contention of the Ld. counsel was to be accepted, obviously the provisions of clause (v) of section 2 (47) of the Act would become redundant in the sense that registration of agreement would again be made compulsory but since properties were being sold in the market on power of attorney basis th .....

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ions of section 2(47) and also section 53A before and after amendment as wall as para Nos. 11.1 to 11.2 of the Board s Circular No. 495 dated 22.9.1987 observed as under:- The above clearly shows that there was certain situation where properties were being transferred without registration of transfer instruments and people were escaping tax liabilities on transfer of such properties because the same could not be brought in the definition of "transfer" particularly in many States of the .....

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ected to tax because the same could not covered by the definition of "transfer". To bring such transactions within the tax net, this amendment was made. It has to be appreciated that clause (v) in section 2(47) does not lift the definition of part performance from section 53A of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882. Rather, it defines any transaction involving allowing of possession of any immovable property to be taken or retained in part performance of a contract of the nature referred .....

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ed above, the purpose of insertion of clause (v) was to tax those transactions where properties were being transferred by way of giving possession and receiving full consideration. Therefore, in our humble opinion, in the case of a transfer where possession has been given and full consideration has been received, then such transaction needs to be construed as "transfer". Therefore, the amendment made in section 53A by which the requirement of registration has been indirectly brought on .....

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vt. Ltd., and two were purchased by its sister concerns which were later purchased by the assessee. The possession of the flats was taken after full payment of consideration. The flats were let out. The assessee contended that the rental income from these flats was assessable as "income from other sources" because the assessee was not the legal owner because the title of the property had not been conveyed to the Co-operative Society which was formed by the purchasers of the flats. The .....

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the basis of above principle and ultimately it was held as under: "Hence, though under the common law "owner" means a person who has got valid title legally conveyed to him after comply with the requirements of law such as the Transfer of Property Act, the Registration Act, etc., in the context section 22 of the Income-tax Act, 1961, having regard to the ground realities and further having regard to the object of the Income-tax Act, namely, to tax the income, "owner" is .....

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man 166 (SC), the assessee had purchased for the use of its staff seven low income group houses from a Housing Board. The payment had been made and in turn possession of the houses was taken over by the assessee. The actual conveyance deed was not executed. The assessee claimed depreciation which was denied by the department. After great discussion, it was observed that for all practicable purposes and for the purpose of Income-tax Act, the assessee shall be construed as owner of the property. I .....

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ere being actually used by the staff of the assessee. The assessee was entitled to depreciation in respect of the seven houses in respect of which the assessee had not obtained a deed of conveyance from the vendor although it had taken possession and made part payment of the consideration". Thus, from the above two decisions, it becomes absolutely clear that for the purpose of the Income-tax Act the ground reality has to be recognized and if all the ingredients of transfer have been complet .....

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amendment to sec. 53A of the Transfer of Property Act, whereby the requirement of the documents not being registered has been omitted, will not alter the situation for holding the transaction to be a transfer u/s.2(47)(v) if all other ingredients have been satisfied. 74 Thus, it is clear that non registration of agreement cannot lead to the conclusion that provision of section 2(47) (v) is not applicable. Similar view has been taken by ITAT Cochin Bench of the Tribunal in case of G.Sreenivasan .....

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ust, 1994. 76 We have already discussed the implications of the decision in case of Chaturbhuj Dwarkadas Kapadia (supra) in para 33 to 38. We had also examined why in that case capital gain was not held to be chargeable in Assessment year 1995-96.There is no need to repeat the same and in view of the said observations, we reject this contention. 77 The next contention is that it is necessary for invoking of section 2(47)(v) of the Act to comply with the provisions of section 53A of the Transfer .....

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de para 16 are clear and shows that this requirement has to be absolute and unconditional. Some observations have been made in the case of General Glass Company Pvt Ltd Vs DCIT (supra). In that case it was held that willingness to perform for the purpose of section 53A is something more than a statement of intent and it is unqualified and unconditional willingness on the part of the transferee to perform his obligation. In that case the transferee has agreed to make certain payments in installme .....

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though it is not pointed out in what respect the transferee has failed to perform his part but it has been observed that the facts of the case shows that transferee has not performed his part of the contract. 80 The third judgment relied upon by the Ld. Counsel for the assessee is in the case of DCIT v Tej Singh (supra). In that case land was acquired by the government and the matter went for litigation. During the pendency of litigation, the assessee entered into a Development agreement with a .....

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observed that assessee could not have given possession unless and until the land was denotified. Since facts of the case are different than the case in hand and therefore, same are not relevant for our purpose. 81 Now coming to the facts, firstly it was contended that Developer i.e transferee has not obtained various permissions which were required to be taken by the Developer as per clauses 3.1, 7.9, 8.4 and 8.6 of the JDA. This is not correct as pointed out by the Ld. CIT DR that assessee had .....

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gs arrived were ex.parte. No order in the matter has been passed by the competent authority perhaps because of the order of High Court. In the interim order passed in the PIL it has been clarified by the Hon'ble Supreme Court vide order dated 31.1.2012 permitting the concerned authority under the different statutes governing the matter to their respective jurisdiction to be decided in accordance with law. Thus, it becomes clear that developer i.e. THDC has applied for various permissions bef .....

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v) reads as under:- FORCE MAJEURE i) None of the parties shall be liable to the other Party or be deemed to be in breach of this Agreement by reasons of any delay in performing or any failure to perform, any of its own obligations in relation to the Agreement, if the delay or failure is due to any Event of Force Mejeure. Event of Force Majeure is any event caused beyond the parties reasonable control. The following shall be regarded as issues beyond the Parties reasonable control. ii) For the pu .....

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laws, action and / or order by statutory and / or government authority, third party actions affecting the development of the Project, acquisition / requisition of the Property or any part thereof by the government or any other statutory authority and such circumstances affecting the development of the project (Event of Force Majeure). iii) Any Party claiming restriction on the performance of any of its obligations under this agreement due to the happening or arising of an Event of Force Majeure .....

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cause thereof and minimize the economic damage arising thereof. v) Either Party may terminate this Agreement after giving the other Party a prior notice of fifteen (15) days in writing of the Event of Force Majeure continues for period of ninety (90) days. In the event of termination of this Agreement all obligations of the Parties until such date shall be fulfilled. 82 The combined reading of these clauses show that if any of the party could not perform its part of the obligation because of the .....

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de order dated March 26, 2012 is perused. Paras 3, 4, 22, 25 & 26 of the judgment read as under:- 3. The broad contours of the present proceeding having been outlined, we may now proceed to take note of the specific contentions of the contesting parties as made before us. However, before we do so, it may be appropriate to mention the somewhat conflicting stand of the parties with regard to the present stage of the applications filed under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act as .....

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the findings arrived at, which have formed the basis of the refusal, are ex-parte. No order in the review matter has been passed by the competent authority, perhaps, because of the interim order passed in the PIL which has been clarified by the Hon'ble Supreme Court by order dated 31.1.2012 permitting the concerned authority under the different statutes governing the matter to exercise their respective jurisdictions in accordance with law. Insofar as the Wild Life (Protection) Act is concer .....

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prudent on our part to take the view that the issue with regard to clearance/sanction under the two enactments i.e. Environment (Protection) Act and Wild Life (Protection) Act is presently pending and as the promoters of the project have submitted themselves to the jurisdiction of the authorities under the said enactments we should refrain from addressing ourselves on any of the issues connected with either of the two statutory enactments as any such exercise, even though may be unintended, may .....

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y us, a public trust has been bestowed on the authorities by provisions of the said Acts which cast on such authorities a duty to interdict any project or activity which even remotely seems to create an imbalance in the pristine ecology and environment of the area on which the city of Chandigarh is situated or for that matter in the immediate vicinity thereof. As already observed, necessary clearances under the aforesaid two enactments, insofar as the respondents are concerned, are presently pen .....

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) Act and the Wild Life Protection Act have to demonstrate the need to engage themselves intensively and not acquire a placid approach indicating an eloquent acquiescence to the violation of the 1995 Act, Periphery Control Act and the Periphery Policy. 26. We thus conclude on the aforesaid note by holding and observing that the provisions of the Periphery Control Act and the 1995 Act are complementary to each other and the provisions of the two statutes would apply to the housing project in ques .....

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irections contained hereinabove. 83 The combined reading of the above paras in the order of Hon'ble High Court clearly shows that Developer THDC/ HASH i.e. transferee have made their sincere efforts for obtaining the necessary permissions / sanctions which were required under the JDA. However, some of the sanctions could not be taken in time because of the litigation by way of PIL but since none of the party was liable to the other party in view of the clause 26 dealing with FORCE MAJEURE it .....

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DA, the installment for ₹ 31,92,75,000/- was required to be paid. The clause 4(iv) read as under:- iv) Payment being ₹ 31,92,75,000/- (Rupees One Crore ninety two lacs seventy five thousand only) calculated @ ₹ 24,75,000/- (Rs. Twenty Four lacs seventy five thousand only) per plot holder of 500 Sq. yards and (Rs. 49,50,000/- (Rs. Forty nine lacs fifty thousand only) as per plot holder of 1000 square yards to be made to the Owner and / or the respective members of the Owner (as .....

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as Annexure V and bearing Khasra nos. 123/15, 123/6, 123/7 (balance part), 123/3 (part), 123//4//1, 123///4//1/2, 123//4/2, 123/5/1, 123//5/2, 123//5/3, 112/24/24 (part) 85 The careful reading of the said clause of the JDA would show this payment was required to be made within a period of six months from the date of execution of this agreement or within two months from the date of approval of plan / sanction and drawing grant of final license to develop where upon the construction can commence, .....

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h Court which initially stayed the sanction of such plan etc. This led to situation where construction could not be commenced and hence payment was not required to be made in view of the pending litigation. The clauses of force majeure came into operation and therefore, it cannot be said that the developer is not willing to perform its part of the contract. In any case there is no default on the part of the developer as payment was not yet due as per clause 4(i)(iv) of JDA. 86 This position was .....

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ts clearly shows that in view of clause 4.1 (iv) read with clause 26 (v) of the JDA, HASH Builder were not required to make the payment and it cannot be said that they were not willing to perform their part of the contract on this aspect. Therefore, this contention is rejected. 87 Seventh contention is that revenue wrongly held that even clause (vi) of Section 2(47) is applicable. We find no force in this contention. Clause (vi) to Section 2(47) reads as under: any transaction (whether by way of .....

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enjoyment of any immoveable property would be covered by the definition of transfer. In the case before us, initially the Members of the Society were holding shares in the Society for ownership of plot of 500 sqyd or 1000 sqyd. This membership was surrendered to the Society vide resolution of the Society passed in the Executive Committee on 4.1.2007 which was later ratified in the General Body Meeting of the Society on 25.1.2007, so that the society could enter into JDA. In the JDA the Society .....

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tional income i.e. the money to be received later, can not be taxed. In this regard reliance was placed on certain Supreme Court decisions and other cases for the proposition that notional income cannot be taxed. There is no need to discuss the cases relied on by the ld. counsel of the assessee because it is settled position of law that no notional income can be taxed. Though there is no quarrel that it is a settled principle of law that notional income can not be taxed but in case of capital ga .....

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ration which has not been received was to be taxed then the assessee would be deprived for claiming exemption u/s 54 and 54EC. As observed above as per Section 45 r.w.s 48 whole of the consideration, received or accrued has to be taxed. Every person is supposed to know the law and if the transaction is structured in such a way for the transfer of capital asset that some of the consideration would be received later then such person is supposed to know the consequences of the denial of such benefi .....

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ration of ₹ 99.00 crores which has not been received as per the contention of the ld. counsel of the assessee . But in that case no taxes can be levied even after 20 years because no transfer can be said to have taken place after 20 years and Revenue cannot do any thing because capital gain can be charged u/s 45 only on transfer of capital asset. We do not think that this kind of interpretation can be made while interpreting Section 45 r.w.s. 48 by invoking the rule that there can not be a .....

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on-charging of tax on the same because of certain conduct based on the ipse dixit of a particular assessee cannot be accepted. In determining the question whether it is hypothetical income or whether real income has materialized or not, various factors will have to be taken into account. It would be difficult and improper to extend the concept of real income to all cases depending upon the self-serving statement of the assessee. What has really accrued to the assessee has to be found out and wha .....

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e Act. For example in case of income from house property, the income has to be determined as per section 23. Section 22 of the Income Tax Act provides that it is the annual value of the property which can be taxed under the head income from house property . Sector 23 prescribes the method for determining the annual value. Section 23 (1) (a) reads as under:- 23. (1) For the purposes of section 22, the annual value of any property shall be deemed to be - (a) the sum for which the property might re .....

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Pithisaria s in Commentary of Income Tax Law (fifth edition) Volume 1 in this respect at pages 1275 & 1276 observed as under: Annual value- determination of - Section 23(1)(a) provides that for the purposes of section 22, the annual value of any property shall be deemed to be the sum for which the property might reasonably be expected to let from year to year. The word used is might and not can or is . It is thus a notional income to be gathered from what a hypothetical tenant would pay whi .....

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CIT, (1972) 83 ITR 470 (Cal), affirmed, (1980) 124 ITR 31 (SC); CIT v. Zorostrian Building Society Ltd., (1976) 102 ITR 499 (Bom); C.J. George V. CIT, (1973) 92 ITR 137 (Ker); D.C. Anand & Sons v. CIT, (1981) 131 ITR 77 (Del). Also see, CIT v. Parbutty Churn Law, (1965) 57 ITR 609, 619 (Cal); In the matter of Krishna Lal Seal, AIR 1932 Cal 836; Lalla Mal Samgham Lal v. CIT, (1936) 4 ITR 250 (Lah); New Delhi Municipal Committee v. Nand Kumar Bussi, (1977) Tax LR 2130 (Del)] 93 Similar view h .....

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not. This means that notional value of the property has to be charged to the Income Tax under the head income from house property . From the above, it becomes clear that though there is no real income from letting out of the property, still the notional annual value is subjected to tax under the head income from house property . However, we may mention that u/s 23 (1) (c) of the Act if the property is let out and then remained vacant for some part of the year or for whole of the year then vacanc .....

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ghted deductions say for example in case of expenditure on scientific research, the taxable income as per the provisions of the Act may be zero but still because of the Mat provisions, tax has to be charged on book profits. Similarly in the case of presumptive tax provisions e.g. u/s 44AD if a person is civil contractor and does not maintain books of account and his turnover is less than ₹ 60 lakhs then the profit would be presumed to be 8% of turnover even if he has suffered a loss. Anoth .....

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ncome is subject to the provisions of the Act and whenever any specific provisions of the Act is there for charging of a particular item of income, then the same has to be charged accordingly. It may be sometimes hard to the assessee s but again it has been held in numerous decisions that Fiscal statues have to be interpreted on the basis of language used and there is no scope for equity or intent. Ld. Author Shri S. Rajaratnam in the Commentary of Law of Income Tax by Sampat Iyengar s Volume 1, .....

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ing notional income could not be subjected to tax but whenever there is a specific provision, the same has to be taxed. Now, in case of capital gain, section 45 read with section 48 very clearly provides that it is the profit arising from the transfer of a capital asset which would be subjected to charge of capital gain tax and section 48 clearly provides for taking the total consideration into account while computing the capital gains. This aspect we have already discussed in detail at para No. .....

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the Parties that THDC shall use its expertise and its Brand name and / or any other brand name at its discretion to develop the Property into the Premises as per applicable building bye-laws of the Competent Authority and the Owner shall have no objection to the same in whatsoever manner. In consideration of the Owner granting and assigning, its Development Rights in the Property, irrevocably and in perpetuity, to THDC to develop the Property and for transfer of the Property upon the surrender .....

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e to 65 members having plot of 500 sq. yards each, ₹ 1,65,00,000/- (Rupees One Crore Sixty Five Lacs Only) payable to 30 members having plot of 1000 sq. yards each and ₹ 3,30,00,000/- (Rupees Three Crores Thirty Lacs Only) payable to the Owner for the 4 plots of 500 sq. yards each, which shall tantamount to the full and final payment to the Owner and / or the respective members of the Owner (as the case may be) in a manner set out herein below ( Payment ). Further, the transfer, sale .....

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ale of 21.2 acres of land of the Property shall be ₹ 106,42,50,000/- (Rupees One Hundred Six Crores Forty Two Lacs Fifty Thousand only) and one hundred and twenty nine (129) flats consisting of Super Area of 2250 Sq. feet ( Flats ); one flat each for sixty five members having a plot of 500 sq. yards, two flats for the (thirty) 30 members having a plot of 1000 sq. yards and 4 flats to the Owner for the 4 plots of 500 sq. yards each as per list annexed with this Agreement as Schedule B ( Sal .....

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e Flats in the name of members of the Owner as per list annexed with this Agreement as Schedule B attached herein (hereinafter referred to as the Allottees ). The specifications of the flats would be provided by the Developers to the Owner and more particularly described in the Schedule C attached herein (hereinafter referred to as the Specifications ). The Allotment letters shall be issued to the Allottees (members of the Owner) within forty-five (45) days from the date of sanction of the build .....

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ause 4.2 shall hereinafter be collectively referred to as the Entire Consideration 98 From this clause it becomes absolutely clear that each Member having 500 sqyd of plot was entitled to receive one furnished flat measuring 2250sqft and Members having 1000sqyd flat were entitled to receive two furnished flats. Thus upon execution of the JDA vested right came to such Members to receive such flats. Once this vested right arises out of the above contract it can easily be said that this right has a .....

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rued. Though it may be hard on the assessee but it is well settled that taxation and equity are strangers. Further commenting on this aspect Shri Rajarathnam in his commentary has observed at page 5164 as under: It is hard on the owners when required to pay tax, when handing over the possession for purposes of construction without being able to enjoy the construction, which is yet to commerce or in the process of construction being put up by the developer, but the solution lies in statutory clar .....

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n view of this discussion this contention is rejected. 100 Ninth contention is that the assessee has already terminated the agreement and has revoked the Power of Attorney. We find no force in this submissions. 101 In this regard ld. counsel of the assessee has relied on the decision of Mumbai Bench of the Tribunal in case of Chemosyn Ltd. V ACIT (supra). In that case the assessee-Company was owner of two plots bearing 256 & 257 in Gundabali Andheri Mumbai. The assessee-company entered into .....

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Technology Ltd. by a tripartite conveyance deed executed on 5.7.2007 for ₹ 29.11 crores and therefore, additional consideration of ₹ 13 crores has been offered to tax in Assessment year 2008-09. This explanation was rejected by the Assessing Officer because according to him it was a case of transfer u/s 2(47)(v) and total consideration has to be charged in the year of transfer. The Tribunal after considering the provisions of section 45 & 48 posed a question to itself that what s .....

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d. 102. From the above decision it is not clear whether in case of Kalaptaru Construction Oversees Pvt Ltd. (supra) which has been followed in above case, was concerning capital gain or not? Secondly it is not clear that whether the amended consideration i.e. settlement for ₹ 1.00 crore was made in the same year or not? As observed earlier while discussing the issue of notional income that provisions of section 45 r.w.s. 48, are absolutely clear and there is no ambiguity that once a capita .....

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, undertakings, declarations, covenants and/or obligations given by the Owner under this Agreement after giving thirty (30) days written notice for rectification of such breach. In the event the Agreement is termination by THDC, all the lands registered in the name of THDC as per the terms of this Agreement upto the date of the termination shall remain with THDC and the balance lands to be transferred to THDC as per the terms of this Agreement shall not be transferred by the Owner in favour of T .....

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e required for the development of this Property in relation to the Project and to undertake the Project are not granted within nine (9) months of the submission of the final plans/Designs and Drawings to the Competent Authority for approval then THDC may as its sole discretion either decide that it does not desire to undertake and complete the Project and hence terminate this Agreement after giving thirty (30) days written notice in this regard or decide to wait for any further times deemed fit .....

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.1(i) above within one month of such termination. In the event of failure of the Owner to refund the said amount, the Owner hereby agrees to execute a registered sale deed for land of equivalent value in favour of THDC. (iii) In the event THDC is unable to develop the Property due to refusal/non grant of approvals, consents, permission, licenses or revocation of the same by the appropriate statutory authority, then THDC may at its sale discretion terminate this Agreement. In the event the Agreem .....

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to refund the said amount, the Owner hereby agrees to execute a registered sale deed for land of equivalent value in favour of THDC. (iv) The owner shall have the right to terminate the Agreement only in the event of default by the Developers for making the Payment in accordance with the terms of this Agreement and the allotment of Flats within the time period as mentioned in this Agreement after giving Thirty (30) days written notice for rectification of such breach or any further time as may .....

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ld show that power of termination has been given in many circumstances to THDC vide clause 14(i), (ii) and (iii). The power for termination by the owner has been mentioned in clause 14(iv) only. Reading of this clause would show that right to terminate with the owner i.e. the Society was available only in case of default in making the payment. The issue regarding default for making payment has already been discussed by us in Paras 84 to 86 above while discussing the issue of willingness on the p .....

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of an Arbitrator to the developer. In the absence of such notice the termination will not stand scrutiny of law. Here it is also pertinent to note that though it was stated that irrevocable Power of Attorney has been revoked and some documents have been filed before us for revocation but clause 6.7 of the JDA which we have reproduced earlier clearly provides that such Power of Attorney cannot be revoked. We reproduce clause 6.7 again which is as under: 6.7 The Owner shall execute an irrevocable .....

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ten consent of THDC or any of its duly constituted attorneys. 104 The above clearly shows that this Power of Attorney could not be revoked for any reason without obtaining specific prior written consent of THDC/HASH. No document showing the consent of THDC for revocation of this irrevocable Power of Attorney has been produced before us. We fail to understand that in the absence of such document how the assessee can claim that this Power of Attorney has been revoked. As discussed earlier while co .....

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aken in respect of revocation of the irrevocable Power of Attorney. In the absence of specific consent as provided in clause 6.7 of the JDA from THDC. 105 We may also note that CIT D.R has pointed out that total consideration was to be determined as under: (i) Consideration in cash (Rs. 82,50,000 x 129 plots) ₹ 106,42,50,000/- (ii) Consideration in kind (Rs. 101,25,000/- x 129 plots) ₹ 130,61,25,000/- Total ₹ 237,03,75,000/- Average cost of consideration ₹ 11.18 crores pe .....

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3.08 acres for ₹ 15.48 crores through first conveyance deed, whereas consideration as per original agreement was ₹ 11.18 crores per acre as shown above. The difference is because of non receipt of consideration in kind and the assessee has not shown any evidence that it has made the claim for receipt of balance consideration. This leads to the conclusion that there was no cancellation of the JDA. 106 Some arguments were made by both the parties that if the contract is finally stand a .....

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subjected to tax in any other year. We find that this question was seriously considered by the Ld. Authority for Advance Ruling in case of Jasbir Singh Kataria (supra) which has been relied on by both the parties for various aspects. In that case it was observed at para 39 as under: We have to advert to one aspect which has caused some concern to us. What will happen if during the year following the one in which the deemed transfer took place, the proposed venture collapses for reasons such as r .....

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onsideration, however, we find that the construction of the relevant provision should not be controlled by giving undue importance to such hypothetical situations. Normally, the owner executes a Power of Attorney or does similar act to left the transferee take possession only after the basic permissions are granted and he is satisfied about the ability of transferee/developer to fulfil the contract. In spite of that, if such rate situations take place, the owner/transferor will not be without re .....

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when required to pay tax, when handing over the possession for purposes of construction without being able to enjoy the construction, which is yet to commerce or in the process of construction being put up by the developer, but the solution lies in statutory clarification in such cases. In view of the increasing scale of such development agreements to solve the housing problem in the cities, a statutory clarification or circular is overdue. We may mention here that no doubt sometimes an assessee .....

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rmissions are obtained and construction is completed and if no taxes are held to be payable then later on also the assessee may not be subjected to any tax under the head capital gain because then it can be easily contended on behalf of the assessee that the transfer has already taken place on the date when irrevocable Power of Attorney was executed. In that situation the Revenue will have no remedy. 107 The above clearly shows that such hypothetical consideration cannot be considered for giving .....

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that it was stated that irrevocable Power of Attorney has been revoked but the word irrevocable itself shows that in the eyes of law special Power of Attorney could not have been revoked. In view of this analysis, we are of the opinion that either the JDA has not been cancelled or in any case the same cannot be considered for determining the taxation of capital gain. Accordingly this contention is rejected. 108 The next contention of the assessee is that even if the whole consideration has to be .....

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issue is discussed in clause 5 which is as under:- 5. Clauses 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4 on the page nos. 18 and 19 of the Agreement shall stand amended, modified and substituted by the following:- 4.1 It is expressly agreed and understood by and between the Parties hereto (a) in the ratio of 72,28 between THDC and HASH in case Gross Sales Proceeds does not exceed ₹ 1272 crores; (b) in the ratio of 70: 30 between THDC and HASH in case Gross Sales Proceeds is equal to ₹ 1272 crores; (c) i .....

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be allotted in the names of the members of the Society or otherwise, as the case may be, calculated as ₹ 2000 per sq. ft. for the area 2,83,500 sq. ft. and the 72% share of 3 flats of 2250 Sq. ft. to be purchased by HASH @ Rs, 4500/- per sq. ft. Should the application of the ratio stipulated in (a) above result in HASH being entitled to a sum greater than the minimum guaranteed amount and THDC being entitled to a sum less than the minimum guaranteed amount, THDC shall-be entitled to the en .....

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re feet area which were to be allotted to the members of the society. Thus, it is clear that figure of ₹ 2,000/- per sq. feet represents only the cost of constructions to be incurred by THDC which was debited to the account of HASH. Further, HASH has agreed to purchase three Flats @ 4,500/- per square feet. Some news reports were quoted before us in one of the cases to show that various brokers had issued various advertisements for sale of these flats and these flats were ultimately to be .....

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h area which is ₹ 4,000/- to 12,000/- per square feet we are of the opinion that value of the flat at ₹ 4,500/- per square feet is absolutely fair. In any case M/s HASH has agreed to purchase the flats at this rate from M/s THDC. It may be noted as pointed out by the ld. DR for the revenue some of the News report clippings filed by various assessees clearly shows that flats were booked in the Tata Camleot (this was the name which was given to the Project which was to be developed on .....

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F. He has pointed out that this issue has been rejected wrongly by CIT(A). However, carefully perusal of the grounds of appeal show that no ground in respect of deduction u/s 54F has been raised before us and, therefore, we decline to adjudicate this issue and all the arguments made in this behalf are rejected. Though reference was made to ground No. 2.3 in this regard. The perusal of grounds No. 2.3 would show that reference has been made only to Section 54 and Section 54EC. Section 54 deals wi .....

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ety which is legal owner of the land. 112 On the other hand, the ld. DR for the revenue submitted that the Society was acting on behalf of the Members and the Members have surrendered their rights in favour of the Society so as to enable the Society to enter into JDA for transfer of property in favour of the developer i.e. THDC/HASH. Therefore, capital asset has been sold by the Members. Further the consideration was to be received from Hash by the individual plot owners. 113 We have heard the r .....

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