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Notes on clauses

..... for the assessment year 2020- 2021. Further, it lays down the rates at which tax is to be deducted at source during the financial deductions under the Income-tax Act; and the rates at which advance tax is to be paid, tax is to be deducted at source from, or paid on, income chargeable under the head salaries and tax is to be calculated and charged in special cases for the financial year 2020-2021. Clause 3 of this Bill seeks to amend section 2 of the Income-tax Act relating to definitions. Clause(13A) of the said section defines business trust to mean a trust registered as an Infrastructure Investment Trust under the Securities Exchange Board of India (Infrastructure Investment Trusts) Regulation, 2014 or a Real Estate Investment Trust under the Securities Exchange Board of India (Real Estate Investment Trusts) Regulation, 2014 made under the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992, whose units are required to be listed on a recognised stock exchange in accordance with the aforesaid regulations. It is proposed to amend the said clause so as to omit the long line relating to the requirement of listing of the business trust from recognised stock exchange in accordance with th .....

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..... hstanding anything contained in that sub-section, an individual, being a citizen of India, shall be deemed to be resident in India in any previous year, if he is not liable to tax in any other country or territory by reason of his domicile or residence or any other criteria of similar nature. Clause (6) of said section provides for situations in which a person shall be not ordinarily resident in India in a previous year. Sub-clause (a) thereof provides that if such person is an individual, he shall be not ordinarily resident in India if he has been a non-resident in India in nine out of the ten previous years preceding that year, or has during the seven previous years preceding that year been in India for a period of, or periods amounting in all to, seven hundred and twenty-nine days or less. Sub-clause (b) thereof contains similar provision in case of manager of the Hindu undivided family. It is proposed to substitute said clause (6) so as to provide that an individual or an Hindu Undivided Family shall be said to be not ordinarily resident in India in a previous year if the individual or the manager of the Hindu Undivided Family, as the case may be, has been a non-resident in Ind .....

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..... ded by rules. It is further proposed to provide that the transactions or activities shall constitute significant economic presence in India, whether or not- (i) the agreement for such transactions or activities is entered in India; or (ii)the non-resident has a residence or place of business in India; or (iii) the non-resident renders services in India. It is also proposed to provide that only so much of income as is attributable to the transactions or activities referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) of the said Explanation shall be deemed to accrue or arise in India. These amendments will take effect from the 1st April, 2022 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2022-2023 and subsequent assessment years. It is also proposed to insert a new Explanation 3A so as to declare that the income attributable to operations carried out in India, as referred to in Explanation 1 of clause (i) of sub-section (1) of said section, shall include income from- (i)such advertisement which targets a customer who resides in India or a customer who accesses the advertisement through internet protocol address located in India; (ii) sale of data collected from a person who resi .....

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..... sequent assessment years. Clause (vi) of sub-section (1) of said section deems certain income by way of royalty to accrue or arise in India. Clause (v) of Explanation 2 to said clause defines the term royalty to mean the transfer of all or any rights (including the granting of a licence) in respect of any copyright, literary, artistic or scientific work including films or video tapes for use in connection with television or tapes for use in connection with radio broadcasting; broadcasting, but not including consideration for the sale, distribution or exhibition of cinematographic films. It is proposed to amend clause (v) of Explanation 2 to said clause so as to provide that the consideration for the sale, distribution or exhibition of cinematographic films shall not be excluded from definition of royalty. This amendment will take effect from the 1st April, 2021 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2021-2022 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 6 of the Bill seeks to amend section 9A of the Income-tax Act relating to certain activities not to constitute business connection in India. Sub-section (3) of the said section provides for the conditions to be f .....

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..... xemption to such fund or trust or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution shall not be available unless it is approved under the proposed second proviso on an application made in the prescribed form and manner to the Principal Commissioner or Commissioner, for grant of approval where the fund or trust or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution is approved under the second proviso (as it stood before its amendment by the Finance Act, 2020), within three months from the date on which this clause has come into force; where the fund or trust or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution is approved and the period of such approval is set to expire, at least six months prior to expiry of said period; where the fund or trust or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution has been provisionally approved, at least six months prior to expiry of period of the provisional approval or within six months of commencement of its activitie .....

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..... titute the eighth proviso so as to provide that the approval granted under the proposed second proviso shall apply in relation to the income of the fund or trust or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution, where the application is made under clause (i) of the first proviso, from the assessment year from which approval was earlier granted to it; where the application is made under clause (iii) of the first proviso, from the first of the assessment years for which it was provisionally approved; in any other case, from the assessment year immediately following the financial year in which such application is made. Ninth proviso to clause (23C) of said section thereof, inter alia, provides for the period within which a notification under sub-clause (iv) or sub-clause (v) shall be issued or approval under sub-clause (iv) or sub-clause (v) or sub-clause (vi) or sub-clause (via) shall be granted or an order rejecting the application made in this behalf shall be passed. It is proposed to substitute the ninth proviso so as to provide that the order under clause (i), sub-clause (b) of clause (ii) and clause (iii) of the propo .....

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..... 0. Clause (23D) of the said section exempts the income of Mutual Fund registered under the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 or such other Mutual Funds. This exemption is subject to the provisions of Chapter XII-E relating to special provision relating to tax on distributed income. It is proposed to omit the reference of the said Chapter in the said clause so that Mutual Funds are not required to pay additional tax under that Chapter. Clause (23FC) of the said section exempts certain income of business trust including income by way of dividend referred to in sub-section (7) of section 115-O. It is proposed to amend the said clause so as to exempt all dividend received or receivable by business trust from a special purpose vehicle under the said clause. Clause (23FD) of the said section exempts income distributed by business trust to a unit holder except the interest and rental income. It is proposed to amend the said clause so as to exclude dividend income received by a unit holder from business trust from such exemption. It is proposed to insert a new clause (23FE) in the said section so as to provide exemption in respect of any income of a specified person in the n .....

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..... dian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Limited, being a wholly owned subsidiary of Oil Industry Development Board under the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, as a result of arrangement for replenishment of crude oil stored in its storage facility in pursuance of directions of the Central Government in this behalf. It is further proposed to insert a proviso to newly inserted clause so as to provide that nothing contained in this clause shall apply to an arrangement if the crude oil is not replenished in the storage facility within three years from the end of the financial year in which the crude oil was removed from the storage facility for the first time. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2020 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2020-2021 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 8 of the Bill seeks to amend section 10A of the Income-tax Act relating to special provision in respect of newly established undertakings in free trade zone, etc. Sub-section (1) of the said section provides that subject to the provisions of this section, a deduction of such profits and gains as are derived by an undertaking from the export of articles or things or c .....

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..... o to said subsection so as to provide that the registration referred therein shall become inoperative from the date on which the trust or institution is approved under clause (23C), or is notified under clause (46) of section 10, as the case may be, or the date on which this proviso comes into force, whichever is later. It is further proposed to insert another proviso to said sub-section so as to provide that the trust or institution, whose registration has become inoperative under the proposed first proviso, may apply to get its registration operative under proposed section 12AB subject to the condition that on doing so, the approval under clause (23C) or notification under clause (46) of section 10, as the case may be, to such trust or institution shall cease to have any effect from the date on which the said registration becomes operative and thereafter, it would not be entitled to exemption under the respective clause. These amendments will take effect from 1st June, 2020. Clause 10 of the Bill seeks to amend section 12A of the Income-tax Act relating to conditions for applicability of sections 11 and 12. Sub-section (1) of said section provides for the conditions to be fulfill .....

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..... 0 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2020-2021 and subsequent assessment years. Sub-section (2) of said section provides that an application has been made on or after the 1st day of June, 2007, the provisions of sections 11 and 12 shall apply in relation to the income of such trust or institution from the assessment year immediately following the financial year in which such application is made. It is proposed to insert first proviso to said sub-section so as to provide that the provisions of sections 11 and 12 shall apply to a trust or institution, where the application is made under sub-clause (i) of proposed clause (ac) of sub-section (1), from the assessment year from which such trust or institution was earlier granted registration; sub-clause (iii) of proposed clause (ac) of sub-section (1), from the first of the assessment years for which it was provisionally registered. It is proposed to amend the existing first and third proviso to sub-section (2) thereof so as to make reference of proposed new section 12AB. This amendment will take effect from 1st June, 2020. Clause 11 of the Bill seeks to amend section 12AA of the Income-tax Act relating to pr .....

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..... Sub-section (3) of the proposed section provides that the order under clause (a), sub-clause (ii) of clause (b) and clause (c) of sub-section (1) shall be passed, in such form and manner as may be prescribed, before the expiry of the period of three months, six months and one month respectively, calculated from the end of the month in which the application was received. Sub-section (4) of the proposed section provides that where registration of a trust or an institution has been granted under clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1) and subsequently, the Principal Commissioner or Commissioner is satisfied that the activities of such trust or institution are not genuine or are not being carried out in accordance with the objects of the trust or institution, as the case may be, he shall pass an order in writing cancelling the registration of such trust or institution after affording a reasonable opportunity of being heard. Sub-section (5) of the proposed section provides that without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (4), where registration of a trust or an institution has been granted under clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1) and subsequently, it is noticed that, .....

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..... ar 2021-2022 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 14 of the Bill seeks to amend section 32AB of the Income-tax Act relating to investment deposit account. Sub-section (5) of the said section provides that deduction under sub-section (1) shall not be admissible to assessee unless the accounts of the business or profession of the assessee for the previous year relevant to the assessment year for which the deduction is claimed have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 and the assessee furnishes, along with his return of income, the report of such audit in the prescribed form duly signed and verified by such accountant. It is proposed to amend the said sub-section (5) so as to provide that deduction under sub-section (1) of section 32AB shall not be admissible to assessee unless the accounts of the business or profession of the assessee for the previous year relevant to the assessment year for which deduction is claimed have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 before the specified date referred to section 44AB (i.e., one month prior to the due date for filing of r .....

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..... deposited with a special account maintained by assessee for the purposes specified in a scheme approved by Government of India or deposits any amount in Site Restoration account opened by assessee in accordance with, and for the purposes specified in, a scheme framed by Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, then assessee shall be allowed a deduction of lesser of the aggregate amount so deposited by the assessee or twenty per cent. of the profits of such business computed under the head Profits and gains from Business or Profession before making any deduction under the said section. Sub-section (2) of the said section provides that deduction under sub-section (1) of section 33ABA will not be admissible to assessee unless the accounts of the business or profession of the assessee for the previous year relevant to the assessment year for which the deduction is claimed have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 and the assessee furnishes, along with his return of income, the report of such audit in the prescribed form duly signed and verified by such accountant. It is proposed to amend sub-section (2) of the said section to pr .....

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..... y has been withdrawn. It is further proposed to insert a new fifth proviso to said sub-section (1) so as to provide that every notification under clause (ii) or clause (iii) in respect of the research association, university, college or other institution or under clause (iia) in respect of the company issued on or before the date on which this proviso comes into effect, shall be deemed to have been withdrawn unless such research association, university, college or other institution referred to in clause (ii) or clause (iii) or the company referred to in clause (iia) makes an intimation in such form and manner to the prescribed authority within three months from the date on which this proviso has come into effect, and subject to such intimation the notification shall be valid for a period of five consecutive assessment years beginning with the assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 2021. It is also proposed to insert a new sixth proviso to said sub-section (1) so as to provide that any notification issued, by the Central Government under clause (ii), clause (iia) or clause (iii), after the date on which the Finance Bill, 2020 receives the assent of the Presiden .....

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..... proposed to amend the said sub-section (4) so as to provide that no deduction in respect of the expenditure referred to in sub-section (1) shall be allowed to the assessee under any other section in any previous year or under this section in any other previous year, if the deduction has been claimed by the assessee and allowed to him under this section. These amendments will take effect from 1st April, 2020 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2020-2021 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 19 of the Bill seeks to amend section 35D of the Income-tax Act relating to amortisation of certain preliminary expenses. Sub-section (1) of the said section provides that an assessee, being an Indian company or a person other than a company who is a resident in India shall be allowed deduction in relation to certain specified expenditure incurred before the commencement of his business or in connection with the extension of undertaking or setting up of new unit of an existing business over a period of ten successive previous years beginning with the previous year in which the business commences or as the case may be, such extension of undertaking or setup of new uni .....

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..... sible under sub-section (1) unless the accounts of the assessee for the year or years in which the expenditure specified in sub-section (2) is incurred have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 and the assessee furnishes, along with his return of income for the first year in which the deduction under this section is claimed, the report of such audit in the prescribed form duly signed and verified by such accountant and setting forth such particulars as may be prescribed. It is proposed to amend the said sub-section (6) so as to provide that deduction under sub-section (1) of section 35E shall not be admissible to assessee unless the accounts of the assessee for the year or years in which the expenditure specified in sub-section (2) is incurred have been audited by an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 before the specified date referred to section 44AB (i.e., one month prior to the due date for filing of return under sub-section (1) of section 139) and the report of such audit has been furnished by that date. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2020 and will, accordingl .....

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..... d date and furnish by that date the report of such audit in the prescribed form duly signed and verified by such accountant and setting forth such particulars as may be prescribed if his total sales, turnover or gross receipts, as the case may be, in business exceed or exceeds one crore rupees in any previous year. It is proposed to insert a proviso in the said clause so as to provide that in the case of a person whose aggregate of all amount received including amount received for sales, turnover or gross receipts during the previous years, in cash, does not exceed five per cent. of the said amount; and the aggregate of all payments made including amount incurred for expenditure, in cash, during the previous year does not exceed five per cent. of the said payment, this clause shall have effect as if for the words one crore rupees , the words five crore rupees had been substituted. Clause (ii) of the Explanation to the said section defines the expression specified date in relation to the accounts of the assessee of the previous year relevant to an assessment year as due date for furnishing the return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139. It is proposed to amend the said cl .....

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..... o arrived for the units of segregated portfolio. It is also proposed to give reference of the definitions of the expressions main portfolio , segregated portfolio and total portfolio as provided in the circular in this behalf issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India under section 11 of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 for the purposes of the said sub-sections. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2020 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2020-2021 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 26 of the Bill seeks to amend section 50B of the Income-tax Act relating to special provision for computation of capital gains in case of slump sale. Sub-section (1) of the said section provides that any profits or gains arising from the slump sale effected in the previous year shall be chargeable to income-tax as capital gains arising from the transfer of long-term capital assets and shall be deemed to be the income of the previous year in which the transfer took place. Sub-section (3) of the said section provides that every assessee, in the case of slump sale, shall furnish in the prescribed form along with the return of income, .....

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..... 55 of the Income-tax Act relating to meaning of adjusted , cost of improvement and cost of acquisition . The said section, inter alia, provides that the cost of long-term capital asset acquired before the 1st day of April, 2001 is taken to be the cost of acquisition to the assesse or the fair market value of the asset on that date, at the option of the assessee. It is proposed to insert a proviso to clause (b) of sub-section (2) of the said section so as to provide that in case of a capital asset referred to in sub-clauses (i) and (ii), being land or building or both, the fair market value of such asset on the 1st day of April, 2001 for the purposes of the said sub-clauses shall not exceed the stamp duty value, wherever available, of such asset as on the 1st day of April, 2001. It is further proposed to define the expression stamp duty value for the purposes of the said proviso to mean the value adopted or assessed or assessable by any authority of the Central Government or a State Government for the purpose of payment of stamp duty in respect of an immovable property. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2021 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment ye .....

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..... ction of any reasonable sum for the purpose of realising such dividend except the dividend referred to in section 115-O. It is proposed to omit the reference of dividend referred to in section 115-O. It is further proposed to insert a proviso to the said section so as to provide that no deduction shall be allowed from the dividend income, or income in respect of units of a Mutual Fund specified under clause (23D) of section 10 or income in respect of units from a specified company defined in the Explanation to clause (35) of section 10, other than deduction on account of interest expense and in any previous year such deduction shall not exceed twenty per cent. of the dividend income, or income in respect of such units, included in the total income for that year without deduction under that section. These amendments will take effect from 1st April, 2021 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2021-2022 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 31 of the Bill seeks to substitute section 72AA of the Income-tax Act, relating to carry forward and set-off of accumulated loss and unabsorbed depreciation allowance in scheme of amalgamation in certain cases. It is prop .....

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..... hat the loan has been sanctioned by the financial institution during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 2019 and ending on the 31st day of March, 2020. This is subject to further condition that the stamp duty value of residential house property does not exceed forty-five lakh rupees and the assessee does not own any residential house property on the date of sanction of loan. It is proposed to amend the said section so as to provide that the deduction under the said section in respect of interest paid on loan sanctioned by a financial institution for acquisition of a residential house property, shall be available if the loan has been sanctioned during the period beginning on the 1st day of April, 2019 and ending on the 31st day of March, 2021, subject to other conditions specified in the said section. This amendment will take effect from the 1st day of April, 2021 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2021-2022 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 33 of the Bill seeks to amend section 80G of the Income-tax Act relating to deduction in respect of donations to certain funds, charitable institutions, etc. Sub-section (5) thereof provides that thi .....

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..... r from which said registration is sought. It is also proposed to insert another proviso to sub-section (5) so as to provide that the Principal Commissioner or Commissioner, on receipt of an application made under the proposed first proviso, shall send a copy of order passed in writing,- (a) where the application is under clause (i) of the said proviso, granting it approval for a period of five years; (b) where the application is under clause (ii) or clause (iii) of the said proviso,- I. call for such documents or information from it or make such inquiries as he thinks necessary in order to satisfy himself about,- (A) the genuineness of activities of such institution or fund; and (B) the fulfilment of all the conditions laid down in clauses (i) to (v) of sub-section (5); and II. after satisfying himself about the genuineness of activities under item (A), and the fulfilment of all the conditions under item (B), of sub-clause (a),- (A) granting it approval for a period of five years; (B) if he is not so satisfied, pass an order in writing rejecting such application and also cancelling its approval after affording it a reasonable opportunity of being heard; III. where the application i .....

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..... uction shall be allowed under this section in respect of any sum exceeding ten thousand rupees unless such sum is paid by any mode other than cash. It is proposed to insert an Explanation to said section so as to declare that assessee s claim for a deduction in respect of any sum referred to in sub-section (2), in the return of income for any assessment year filed by him, shall be allowed on the basis of information relating to such sum furnished by the payee to the prescribed income-tax authority or the person authorised by such authority, subject to verification in accordance with the risk management strategy formulated by the Board from time to time. This amendment will take effect from 1st June, 2020. Clause 35 of the Bill seeks to amend section 80-IA of the Income-tax Act relating to deductions in respect of profits and gains from industrial undertakings or enterprises engaged in infrastructure development, etc. Sub-section (1) of the said section provides that where the gross total income of an assessee includes any profits and gains derived by an undertaking or an enterprise from any business referred to in sub-section (4)(such business being referred to as the eligible busi .....

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..... secutive assessment years out of ten years beginning from the year in which the eligible start-up is incorporated and the total turnover of its business does not exceed one hundred crore rupees in the previous year relevant to the assessment year for which deduction under this section is claimed. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2021 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2021-2022 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 37 of the Bill seeks to amend section 80-IB of the Income-tax Act relating to deduction in respect of profits and gains from certain industrial undertakings other than infrastructure development undertakings. It is proposed to consequentially amend sub-sections (7A), (7B), (11B) and (11C) to substitute the existing phrase provided therein, respectively, with the phrase the report of an audit in such form and containing such particulars, as may be prescribed, and duly signed and verified by an accountant, as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 before the specified date referred to in section 44AB. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2020 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the as .....

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..... eport of the accountant, as defined in the Explanation to section 288 before the specified date referred to in section 44AB (i.e. one month prior to the due date for filing of return under subsection (1) of section 139) giving such particulars in the report as may be prescribed. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2020 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2020-2021 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 40 of the Bill seeks to insert new section 80M relating to deduction in respect of certain inter-corporate dividends. Sub-section (1) of the said new section provides that where the gross total income of a domestic company in any previous year includes any income by way of dividends from any other domestic company, there shall, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, be allowed in computing the total income of such domestic company, a deduction of an amount equal to so much of the amount of income by way of dividends received from such other domestic company as does not exceed the amount of dividend distributed by the first mentioned domestic company on or before the due date. Sub-section (2) of the said section provi .....

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..... clause so as to provide that the avoidance of double taxation under said agreement shall be without creating opportunities for non-taxation or reduced taxation through tax evasion or avoidance (including through treaty-shopping arrangements aimed at obtaining reliefs provided in the said agreement for the indirect benefit to residents of any other country or territory). This amendment will take effect from 1st day of April, 2021 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2021-2022 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 43 of the Bill seeks to amend section 92CB of the Income-tax Act relating to power of Board to make safe harbour rules. Sub-section (1) of the said section provides that the determination of arm's length price under section 92C or section 92CA shall be subject to safe harbour rules. It is proposed to substitute the said sub-section (1) so as to provide that the determination of the income referred to in clause (i) of sub-section (1) of section 9 shall also be subject to safe harbour rules. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2020 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2020-2021 and subsequent assessment .....

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..... a non-resident, during any period not exceeding four previous years preceding the first of the previous years referred to in subsection (4), and the arm's length price of such international transaction or the income of such person shall be determined in accordance with the said agreement. These amendments will take effect from 1st April, 2020. Clause 45 of the Bill seeks to amend section 92F of the Income-tax Act relating to definitions of certain terms relevant to computation of arm's length price, etc. Clause (iv) of the said section provides the definition of specified date. It provides that specified date shall have the same meaning as assigned to due date in Explanation 2 below sub-section (1) of section 139. It is proposed to substitute the said clause (iv) so as to provide that specified date shall mean one month prior to the due date for furnishing the return of income under subsection (1) of section 139 for the relevant assessment year. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2020 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2020-2021 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 46 of the Bill seeks to amend section 94B of the Income-tax Act r .....

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..... id subsection are satisfied. The condition under clause (a) of said sub-section requires that the total income of a non-resident should consist only of income in the nature of dividends or interest as referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of the said section. It is proposed to amend clause (a) of the said subsection so as to provide that the total income of the non-resident should consist only of the income in the nature of dividend or interest as referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of the said section or income in the nature of royalty or fee for technical services as referred to in clause (b) of subsection (1) of the said section. The condition under clause (b) of said sub-section requires that the tax deductible at source on such income as referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of the said section has been deducted as per the provisions of Part B of Chapter XVII of the Income-tax Act. It is further proposed to amend clause (b) of the said sub-section so as to provide that the tax deductible at source on income referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) of subsection (1) of the said section, has been done under the provisions of Chapter XVII at the rates which .....

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..... ovide that the total income by the company shall be computed without deduction under any provisions of Chapter VI-A other than the provisions of section 80JJAA or section 80M instead of computation without deduction under any provisions of Chapter VI-A under the heading "C.-Deductions in respect of certain incomes" other than the provisions of section 80JJAA. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2020 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2020-2021 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 52 of the Bill seeks to amend section 115BAB of the Income-tax Act relating to tax on income of new manufacturing domestic companies. It is proposed to amend said sub-clause (i) of sub-section (2) of the aforesaid section so as to modify this condition to provide that the total income by the company shall be computed without deduction under any provisions of Chapter VI-A other than the provisions of section 80JJAA or section 80M instead of computation without deduction under any provisions of Chapter VI-A under the heading "C.- Deduction in respect of certain incomes" other than the provisions of section 80JJAA. Sub-section (1) of said section .....

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..... conditions contained in subsection (2), it shall become invalid for subsequent assessment years also and other provisions of the Act shall apply for those years accordingly. Sub-section (2) of proposed section provides that for the purposes of sub-section (1), the total income of the individual or Hindu undivided family shall be computed,- (i) without any exemption or deduction under the provisions of clause (5) or clause (13A) or prescribed under clause (14)(other than those as may be prescribed for this purpose) or clause (17) or clause (32) of section 10 or section 10AA or section 16 or clause (b) of section 24 [in respect of property referred to in sub-section (2) of section 23] or clause (iia) of subsection (1) of section 32 or section 32AD or section 33AB or section 33ABA or sub-clause (ii) or sub-clause (iia) or sub-clause (iii) of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2AA) of section 35 or section 35AD or section 35CCC or clause (iia) of section 57 or under any provisions of Chapter VI-A other than the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 80CCD or section 80JJAA; (ii) without set off of any loss,- (a)carried forward or depreciation from any earlier assessment year, if such l .....

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..... , 2021 and such option once exercised shall apply to subsequent assessment years; (ii)having no business income, along with the return of income to be furnished under sub-section (1) of section 139 for an assessment year: Proviso to said sub-section (5) of the proposed section provides that the option under clause (i), once exercised for any previous year can be withdrawn only once for a previous year other than the year in which it was exercised and thereafter, the person shall never be eligible to exercise option under this section, except where such person ceases to have any business income in which case, option under clause (ii) shall be available. Sub-section (1) of the new section 115BAD provides that notwithstanding anything contained in that Act but subject to the provisions of Chapter XII, the income-tax payable in respect of the total income of a person, being a co-operative society resident in India, for any previous year relevant to the assessment year beginning on or after the 1st day of April, 2021, shall, at the option of such person, be computed at the rate of twenty-two per cent., if the conditions contained in sub-section (2) are satisfied. Proviso to said sub-sec .....

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..... ), the conditions contained in sub-section (2) shall be modified to the extent that the deduction under the said section shall be available to such Unit subject to fulfilment of the conditions contained in the said section. Explanation to the said sub-section defines the term Unit to have the meaning assigned to it in clause (zc) of section 2 of the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005. Sub-section (5) of the said section provides that nothing contained in this section shall apply unless option is exercised by the person in the manner as may be provided by rules on or before the due date specified under subsection (1) of section 139 for furnishing the returns of income for any previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 2021 and such option once exercised shall apply to subsequent assessment years. The proviso to the said sub-section provides that once the option has been exercised for any previous year, it cannot be subsequently withdrawn for the same or any other previous year. These amendments will take effect from 1st April, 2021 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2021-2022 and subsequent assessment years. .....

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..... profit shall be deemed to be the total income of the assessee and the tax payable by the assessee on such total income shall be the amount of income-tax at the rate of eighteen and one-half per cent. Sub-section (4) of the said section provides that every company to which the said section applies, shall furnish a report in the prescribed form from an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, certifying that the book profit has been computed in accordance with the provisions of this section along with the return of income filed under sub-section (1) of section 139 or along with the return of income furnished in response to a notice under clause (i) of sub-section (1) of section 142. It is proposed to amend the said sub-section (4) so as to provide that every company to which the said section applies, shall furnish a report in the prescribed form from an accountant as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288 certifying that the book profit has been computed in accordance with the provisions of the said section before the specified date referred to in section 44AB (i.e. one month prior to the due date for filing of return und .....

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..... subsequent assessment years. Clause 58 of the Bill seeks to amend section 115JD of the Income-tax Act relating to tax credit for alternate minimum tax. It is proposed consequentially to insert a new subsection (7) in said section so as to provide that the provisions contained therein shall not apply to a person who has exercised the option referred to in section 115BAC or section 115BAD. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2021 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2021-2022 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 59 of the Bill seeks to amend section 115-O of the Income-tax Act relating tax on distributed profits of domestic companies. The said section provides for levy of additional income tax on any amount declared, distributed or paid by a domestic company by way of dividend (whether interim or otherwise), whether out of current or accumulated profits. The dividend declared, distributed or paid on or after the 1st day of April, 2003 is covered under the provisions of the said section. It is proposed to amend sub-section (1) of the said section so as to provide that dividend declared, distributed or paid on or after the 1st day of April, 20 .....

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..... r institution registered under section 12AB. This amendment will take effect from 1st June, 2020. Clause 62 of the Bill seeks to amend section 115UA of the Income-tax Act relating to tax on income of unit holder and business trust. The said section enables pass through of the income of certain nature from business trust to its unit holders. Subsection (3) of the said section provides that if in any previous year, the distributed income or any part thereof, received by a unit holder from the business trust is of the nature as referred to in sub-clause (a) of clause (23FC) or clause (23FCA), of section 10, then, such distributed income or part thereof shall be deemed to be the income of such unit holder and shall be charged to tax as income of the previous year. It is proposed to omit the reference of sub-clause (a) of clause (23FC) of section 10 from the said sub-section so as to provide that the distributed income of the nature as referred to in clause (23FC) or clause (23FCA) of section 10 shall be deemed to be income of unit holder and shall be charged to tax as income of the previous year. T his amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2021 and will, accordingly, apply in rela .....

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..... ll take effect from 1st April, 2020. Clause 66 of the Bill seeks to amend section 139 of the Income-tax Act relating to return of income. Clause (a) of Explanation(2) of sub-section (1) of the said section provides for due date of furnishing of return of income for certain persons including a working partner of the specified firm as the 30th day of September of the assessment year. It is proposed to amend the said clause so as to omit the word working in sub-clause (iii) and to provide that the due date for filling such return of income shall be the 31st day of October of the assessment year. These amendments will take effect from 1st April, 2020 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to assessment year 2020-2021 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 67 of the Bill seeks to amend section 140 of the Income-tax Act relating to return by whom to be verified. The said section, inter alia, provides for who shall verify the return file under section 115WD or section 139 of the said Act. It is proposed to amend the clauses (c) and (cd) of the said section so as to empower the Board to specify by rules any other person for the said purpose in case of company and limited liability partn .....

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..... eference of section 144 of the Act in it. Sub-section (3B) of the said section provides that the Central Government may for the purpose of giving effect to the scheme, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that any of the provisions of the Act relating to assessment of total income or loss shall not apply or shall apply with such exceptions, modification and adaptations as may be specified in the notification. Proviso to the said sub-section provides that no such direction shall be issued after 31st day of March, 2020. It is further proposed to amend the said proviso to provide that Central Government may issue any direction under sub-section (3B) of the said section upto 31st day of March, 2022. These amendments will take effect from 1st April, 2020. Clause 70 of the Bill seeks to amend section 144C of the Income-tax Act relating to reference to dispute resolution panel. Sub-section (1) of the said section provides that the Assessing Officer is required to forward a draft of the proposed order of assessment to the eligible assessee, if he proposes to make on or after the 1st day of October, 2009, any variation in the income or loss returned which is prejudicial to the in .....

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..... ct from 1st April, 2020. Clause 72 of the Bill seeks to amend section 191 of the Income-tax Act relating to direct payment. The said section provides that in the case of income in respect of which provision is not made for deducting income-tax at the time of payment, and in any case where income-tax has not been deducted in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XVII, income-tax shall be payable by the assessee directly. Explanation to the said section provides that in case the assessee fails to directly pay the tax on such income or part of it under the said section, then the person who is required to deduct any sum in accordance with the provisions of this Act shall be deemed to be considered as an assessee in default. It is proposed to insert sub-section (2) in the said section so as to provide that the income of the assessee in any assessment year, beginning on or after the 1st day of April, 2021, include an income of the nature specified in clause (vi) of sub-section (2) of section 17 and such specified security or sweat equity shares as specified in the said clause, are allotted or transferred directly or indirectly by the current employer, being an eligible start-up refer .....

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..... rates in force of the financial year in which the said specified security or sweat equity share is allotted or transferred. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2020. Clause 74 of the Bill seeks to amend section 194 of the Income-tax Act relating to dividends. The said section, inter alia, provides that the principal officer of an Indian company or a company which has made the prescribed arrangements for the declaration and payment of dividends (including dividends on preference shares) within India, shall, before making any payment in cash or before issuing any cheque or warranty in respect of any dividend or before making any distribution or payment to a shareholder, who is resident in India, of any dividend within the meaning of sub-clause (a) or sub-clause (b) or sub-clause (c) or sub-clause (d) or sub-clause (e) of clause (22) of section 2, deduct from the amount of such dividend, income-tax at the rates in force. It is proposed to amend the said section so as to bring the payment by any mode within the ambit of that section and also to provide for deduction at the rate of ten per cent. instead of the rates in force. It is further proposed to amend the first provis .....

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..... be forty thousand rupees, where the payer is a cooperative society engaged in carrying on the business of banking. This threshold is fifty thousand rupees, in case the payee is a senior citizen. Clause (v) of sub-section (3) provides that sub-section (1) shall not apply to such income credited or paid by a cooperative society (other than a co-operative bank) to a member thereof or to such income credited or paid by a cooperative society to any other co-operative society. Clause (viia) of sub-section (3) provides that sub-section (1) shall not apply to such income credited or paid in respect of, deposits with a primary agricultural credit society or a primary credit society or a co-operative land mortgage bank or a co-operative land development bank; and deposits (other than time deposits made on or after the 1st day of July, 1995) with a co-operative society, other than a cooperative society or bank referred to in sub-clause (a), engaged in carrying on the business of banking. It is proposed to amend sub-section (3) so as to insert a proviso to provide that a co-operative society referred to in clause (v) or clause (viia) shall be liable to deduct income-tax in accordance with the .....

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..... ily or an association of persons or a body of individuals, if such person, has total sales, gross receipts or turnover from business or profession carried on by him exceeding one crore rupees in case of business or fifty lakh rupees in case of profession during the financial year immediately preceding the financial year in which such sum is credited or paid to the account of the contractor. Sub-clause (e) of clause (iv) of the Explanation to the said section defines work to include manufacturing or supplying a product according to the requirement or specification of a customer by using raw material purchased from such customer but does not include manufacturing or supplying a product according to the requirement or specification of a customer by using raw material purchased from a person, other than such customer. It is proposed to substitute the said sub-clause so as to modify the definition of work to include manufacturing or supplying a product according to the requirement or specification of a customer by using material purchased from such customer or its associate, being a person placed similarly in relation to such customer as is the person placed in relation to the assessee .....

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..... he use of any land or building (including factory building) or land appurtenant to a building (including factory building) or furniture or fittings. The second proviso to the said section provides that an individual or a Hindu undivided family, whose total sales, gross receipts or turnover from the business or profession carried on by him exceed the monetary limits specified under clause (a) or clause (b) of section 44AB during the financial year immediately preceding the financial year in which such interest is credited or paid, shall be liable to deduct income-tax under the said section. It is proposed to amend the said proviso so as to provide that an individual or a Hindu undivided family, whose total sales, gross receipts or turnover from business or profession carried on by him exceed one crore rupees in case of business or fifty lakh rupees in case of profession during the financial year immediately preceding the financial year in which such income by way of rent is credited or paid, shall be liable to deduct income-tax under the said section. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2020. Clause 79 of the Bill seeks to amend section 194J of the Income-tax Act relatin .....

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..... t a new section 194K relating to income in respect of units. The said section, inter alia, provides that any person responsible for paying to a resident any income in respect of- (i)units of a Mutual Fund specified under clause (23D) of section 10; or (ii)units from the Administrator of the specified undertaking; or (iii)units from the specified company, shall, at the time of credit of such income to the account of the payee or at the time of payment thereof by any mode, whichever is earlier, deduct income-tax thereon at the rate of ten per cent. It is further proposed to provide that the provisions of the said section shall not apply where the amount of such income or, as the case may be, the aggregate of the amounts of such income credited or paid or likely to be credited or paid during the financial year by the person responsible for making the payment to the account of, or to, the payee does not exceed five thousand rupees. It is also proposed to define the expressions Administrator , specified company and specified undertaking and to clarify that where any income referred to in the said section is credited to any account, whether called "Suspense account" or by any o .....

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..... t at any time on or after the 1st day of July, 2012 but before the 1st day of July, 2020, through issue of long-term infrastructure bond at any time on or after the 1st day of July, 2012 but before the 1st day of October, 2014, through any long-term bond including long-term infrastructure bond at any time on or after 1st day of October, 2014 but before the 1st day of July, 2020 or by way of issue of rupee denominated bonds before the 1st day of July, 2020 subject to the approval of the Central Government. It is proposed to amend said sub-section (2) so as to extend the period of rate of withholding tax of five per cent. on the interest payments against borrowing made under a loan agreement, issue of long-term bonds including infrastructure bonds and issue of rupee denominated bonds from the 1st day of July, 2020 to the 1st day of July, 2023. It is also proposed to insert a new clause (ib) in subsection (2) of the said section so as to extend the withholding tax of four per cent. on the interest payable to a non-resident, in respect of monies borrowed in foreign currency from a source outside India, by way of issue of any long term bond or rupee denominated bond on or after the 1st .....

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..... the gross amount of such sales or services or both. It is further clarified that any payment made by a purchaser of goods or recipient of service directly to an e-commerce participant for sale of goods or provision of services or both, facilitated by an e-commerce operator, shall be deemed to be amount credited or paid by the e-commerce operator to the ecommerce participant and shall be included in the gross amount of such sales or services for the purpose of deduction of income-tax under the said sub-section. Sub-section (2) of the said section provides that no deduction under sub-section (1) shall be made from any sum credited or paid or likely to be credited or paid during the previous year to the account of an e-commerce participant, being an individual or Hindu undivided family, where the gross amount of such sales or services or both during the previous year does not exceed ten lakh rupees and the ecommerce participant has furnished his Permanent Account Number or Aadhaar number to the e-commerce operator. Sub-section (3) of the said section provides that notwithstanding anything contained in Part B of this Chapter a transaction in respect of which tax has been deducted by t .....

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..... from foreign currency bonds or shares of Indian company. The said section provides that where any income by way of interest or dividends in respect of bonds or Global Depository Receipts referred to in section 115AC or by way of long-term capital gains arising from the transfer of such bonds or Global Depository Receipts is payable to a nonresident, the person responsible for making the payment shall, at the time of credit of such income to the account of the payee or at the time of payment thereof in cash or by the issue of a cheque or draft or by any other mode, whichever is earlier, deduct income-tax thereon at the rate of ten per cent. It is proposed to amend said section so as to enable credit of income or payment thereof by any mode. It is further proposed to omit the proviso to the said section. These amendments will take effect from 1st April, 2020. Clause 88 of the Bill seeks to amend section 196D of the Income-tax Act relating to income of Foreign Institutional Investors from securities. The said section, inter alia, provides that where any income in respect of securities referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 115AD, not being income by way of interest re .....

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..... g to profits and gains from the business of trading in alcoholic liquor, forest produce, scrap, etc. Sub-section (1) of the said section provides that every person, being a seller shall, at the time of debiting of the amount payable by the buyer to the account of the buyer or at the time of receipt of such amount from the said buyer in cash or by the issue of a cheque or draft or by any other mode, whichever is earlier, collect from the buyer of any goods of the specified nature a sum equal to the specified percentage, of such amount as income-tax. Clause (c) of the Explanation to the said section provides that the seller means the Central Government, a State Government or any local authority or corporation or authority established by or under a Central, State or Provincial Act, or any company or firm or co-operative society and also includes an individual or a Hindu undivided family whose total sales, gross receipts or turnover from the business or profession carried on by him exceed the monetary limits specified under clause (a) or clause (b) of section 44AB during the financial year immediately preceding the financial year in which the goods of the nature specified in the Table .....

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..... ) or sub-section (1F) or (1G) shall, at the time of receipt of such amount, collect from the buyer, a sum equal to 0.1 per cent. of the sale consideration exceeding fifty lakh rupees as income-tax. It is further provided that in case the buyer does not furnishes his PAN or Aadhaar number to the seller, then the tax shall be collected by the seller at the rate of one per cent. Further, the provision of this sub-section shall not apply if the buyer is liable to deduct tax at source under any other provision of the Act and he has deducted such amount. It is also proposed to define the terms "buyer" and "seller". It is also proposed to amend sub-section (2) of the said section so as to provide that the power to recover tax by collection under the said section shall be without prejudice to any other mode of recovery. It is also proposed to amend sub-section (3) of the said section so as to provide that any person collecting any amount under this section shall pay within the prescribed time the amount so collected to the credit of the Central Government or as the Board directs. It is also proposed to amend the first proviso to subsection (6A) of the said section so as .....

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..... r a scheme, by notification in the Official Gazette, for the disposal of appeal under section 250 so as to impart greater efficiency, transparency and accountability. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2020. Clause 96 of the Bill seeks to amend section 253 of the Income-tax Act relating to appeals to the Appellate Tribunal. Sub-section (1) of the said section provides for appeal by an assessee to the Appellate Tribunal against certain orders by which he is aggrieved. Clause (c) of said section provides one such order to be an order passed by a Principal Commissioner or Commissioner under section 12AA. It is proposed to make a reference to section 12AB in the said clause so as to provide that assessee, if he is aggrieved, may appeal to the Appellate Tribunal against order passed by a Principal Commissioner or Commissioner under section 12AB, as well. The proposed amendment is consequential to the insertion of a new section 12AB in the Income-tax Act which provides the procedure for registration of a trust or institution. These amendments will take effect from 1st June, 2020. Clause 97 of the Bill seeks to amend section 254 of the Income-tax Act relating to orders of App .....

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..... in respect of supply or receipt of goods or services or both to or from a person who does not exist. This amendment will take effect from 1st April, 2020. Clause 99 of the Bill seeks to insert a new section 271K in the Income-tax Act relating to penalty for failure to furnish statements, etc. The proposed section provides that without prejudice to the provisions of that Act, the Assessing Officer may direct that a sum not less than ten thousand rupees but extending to one lakh rupees shall be paid by way of penalty by, the research association, university, college or other institution referred to in clause (ii) or clause (iii) or the company referred to in clause (iia) of sub-section (1), if it fails to deliver or cause to be delivered a statement within the time prescribed under clause (i), or furnish a certificate prescribed under clause (ii) of sub-section (1A) of section 35 of the Income-tax Act; or the institution or fund, if it fails to deliver or cause to be delivered a statement within the time prescribed under clause (viii) of sub-section (5), or furnish a certificate prescribed under clause (ix) of sub-section (5) of section 80G. This amendment will take effect from 1st .....

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..... ner in which and the procedure by which the income shall be arrived in case of operations carried out in India by a non-resident. This amendment will take effect from the 1st day of April, 2021 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2021-22 and subsequent assessment years. It is further proposed to amend said clause (b) by way of insertion of sub-clause (iib) so as to provide that the rules made by the Board may provide, to be the manner in which and the procedure by which the income shall be arrived in case of transaction or activities of a non-resident. This amendment will take effect from the 1st day of April, 2022 and will, accordingly, apply in relation to the assessment year 2022-2023 and subsequent assessment years. Clause 104 of the Bill seeks to amend rule 5 of the First Schedule of the Income-tax Act relating to computation of profits and gains to other insurance business. The said rule provides that profits and gains of any business of insurance other than life insurance shall be taken to be the profit before tax and appropriations as disclosed in the profit and loss account prepared in accordance with the provisions of the Insurance Act, 1938 or .....

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..... struments issued under any other law, or under any scheme of the Central Government, for the time being in force, in addition to the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1992. It also seeks to expand the scope of the term instrument to include duty credit issued under section 51B. Clause 108 of the Bill seeks to insert a new Chapter VAA and a new section 28DA in the Customs Act so as to provide for administration of rules of origin under a trade agreement and to lay down procedure regarding claim of preferential rate of duty on goods imported under a trade agreement entered into between the Government of India and the Government of a foreign country or territory or economic union. Clause 109 of the Bill seeks to amend the heading of Chapter VIIA of Customs Act to insert the words AND ELECTRONIC DUTY CREDIT LEDGER therein. Clause 110 of the Bill seeks to insert a new section 51B in Customs Act so as to provide for creation of an electronic duty credit ledger in the customs automated system and manner of its utilisation. Clause 111 of the Bill seeks to insert a new clause (q) in section 111 of the Customs Act so as to provide for confiscation of improperly imported goods f .....

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..... o to sub-section (1) of section 30 of the Central Goods and Services Tax Act so as to empower the jurisdictional tax authorities to extend the period provided to file an application for revocation of cancellation of registration. Clause 121 of the Bill seeks to amend section 31 of the Central Goods and Services Tax Act so as to empower the Government to notify the categories of services or supplies in respect of which tax invoice shall be issued and to make rules regarding the time and manner of its issuance. Clause 122 of the Bill seeks to amend section 51 of the Central Goods and Services Tax Act so as to empower the Government to make rules to provide for the form and manner in which a certificate of tax deduction at source shall be issued. Clause 123 of the Bill seeks to amend sub-section (6) of section 109 of the Central Goods and Services Tax Act so as to make the provisions for Appellate Tribunal and its benches thereof applicable in the Union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. Clause 124 of the Bill seeks to insert a new sub-section (1A) in section 122 of the Central Goods and Services Tax Act so as to make the beneficiary of certain transactions at whose instance .....

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..... fect to the notification of the Government of India in the Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue) number G.S.R. 708(E), dated the 30th September, 2019 with effect from 1st day of July, 2017. Integrated Goods and Services Tax Clause 132 of the Bill seeks to amend section 25 of the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act so as to extend the time limit provided for removal of difficulties thereunder from three years to five years with effect from the date of commencement of the said Act. Clause 133 of the Bill seeks to provide retrospective exemption from integrated tax on supply of fishmeal, during the period from the 1st day of July, 2017 up to 30th day of September, 2019 (both days inclusive). It further seeks to retrospectively levy integrated tax at the reduced rate of twelve per cent. on supply of pulley, wheels and other parts (falling under heading 8483) and used as parts of agricultural machinery of headings 8432, 8433 and 8436, during the period from the 1st day of July, 2017 up to 31st day of December, 2018 (both days inclusive). It also seeks to provide that no refund shall be made of the tax which has already been collected. Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Claus .....

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..... Economic Zones Act, 2005; (b) insert a new section 73B in the said Act so as to empower the Central Government to issue directions and also to authorise the Securities and Exchange Board of India or the Reserve Bank of India to issue instructions, circulars and guidelines, retrospectively, for carrying out the provisions of Part AA of Chapter II of that Act. Clause 143 of the Bill seeks to amend section 9 of the Prohibition of Benami Property Transactions Act, 1988 relating to qualifications for appointment of Chairperson and Members. Sub-section (1) of the said section provides that a person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Chairperson or a Member of the Adjudicating Authority unless he has been a member of the Indian Revenue Service and has held the post of Commissioner of Income-tax or equivalent post in that Service; or has been a member of the Indian Legal Service and has held the post of Joint Secretary or equivalent post in that Service. It is proposed to substitute clause (b) in the said sub-section so as to provide that a person who is qualified for appointment as District Judge shall also be eligible for the appointment as Chairperson or Member of the Adjudic .....

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