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Home Acts & Rules Indian Laws Acts Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 Chapters List This

Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881

Chapter: I
Preliminary
Section 1 : Short title
Section 2 : Omitted
Section 3 : Interpretation clause
Chapter: II
Of Notes, Bills and Cheques
Section 4 : "Promissory note"
Section 5 : "Bill of exchange"
Section 6 : Cheque
Section 7 : "Drawer", "Drawee"
Section 8 : "Holder"
Section 9 : "Holder in due course"
Section 10 : "Payment in due course"
Section 11 : "Inland instrument"
Section 12 : "Foreign instrument"
Section 13 : "Negotiable instrument"
Section 14 : Negotiation
Section 15 : Indorsement
Section 16 : Indorsement "in blank" and "in full"
Section 17 : Ambiguous instruments
Section 18 : Where amount is stated differently in figures and words
Section 19 : Instruments payable on demand
Section 20 : Inchoate stamped instruments
Section 21 : "At sight", "On presentment", "After sight"
Section 22 : "Maturity"
Section 23 : Calculating maturity of bill or note payable so many months after date or sight
Section 24 : Calculating maturity of bill or note payable so many days after date or sight
Section 25 : When day of maturity is a holiday
Chapter: III
Parties to Notes, Bills and Cheques
Section 26 : Capacity to make, etc., the promissory notes, etc.
Section 27 : Agency
Section 28 : Liability of agent signing
Section 29 : Liability of legal representative signing
Section 30 : Liability of drawer
Section 31 : Liability of drawee of cheque
Section 32 : Liability of maker of note and acceptor of bill
Section 33 : Only drawee can be acceptor except in need or for honour
Section 34 : Acceptance by several drawees not partners
Section 35 : Liability of indorser
Section 36 : Liability of prior parties to holder in due course
Section 37 : Maker, drawer and acceptor principals
Section 38 : Prior party a principal in respect of each subsequent party
Section 39 : Suretyship
Section 40 : Discharge of indorser's liability
Section 41 : Acceptor bound although indorsement forged
Section 42 : Acceptance of bill drawn in fictitious name
Section 43 : Negotiable instrument made, etc., without consideration
Section 44 : Partial absence or failure of money-consideration
Section 45 : Partial failure of consideration not consisting of money
Section 45A : Holder's right to duplicate of lost bill
Chapter: IV
Of Negotiation
Section 46 : Delivery
Section 47 : Negotiation by delivery
Section 48 : Negotiation by indorsement
Section 49 : Conversion of indorsement in blank into indorsement in full
Section 50 : Effect of indorsement
Section 51 : Who may negotiate
Section 52 : Indorser who excludes his own liability or makes it conditional
Section 53 : Holder deriving title from holder in due course
Section 54 : Instrument indorsed in blank
Section 55 : Conversion of indorsement in blank into indorsement in full
Section 56 : Indorsement for part of sum due
Section 57 : Legal representative cannot by delivery only negotiate instrument indorsed by deceased
Section 58 : Instrument obtained by unlawful means or for unlawful considera­tion
Section 59 : Instrument acquired after dishonour or when overdue
Section 60 : Instrument negotiable till payment or satisfaction
Chapter: V
Of Presentment
Section 61 : Presentment for acceptance
Section 62 : Presentment of promissory note for sight
Section 63 : Drawee's time for deliberation
Section 64 : Presentment for payment
Section 65 : Hours for presentment
Section 66 : Presentment for payment of instrument payable after date or sight
Section 67 : Presentment for payment of promissory note payable by instal­ments
Section 68 : Presentment for payment of instrument payable at specified place and not elsewhere
Section 69 : Instrument payable at specified place
Section 70 : Presentment where no exclusive place specified
Section 71 : Presentment when maker, etc., has no known place of business or residence
Section 72 : Presentment of cheque to charge drawer
Section 73 : Presentment of cheque to charge any other person
Section 74 : Presentment of instrument payable on demand
Section 75 : Presentment by or to agent, representative of deceased, or as­signee of insolvent
Section 75A : Excuse for delay in presentment for acceptance or payment
Section 76 : When presentment unnecessary
Section 77 : Liability of banker for negligently dealing with bill presented for payment
Chapter: VI
Of Payment and Interest
Section 78 : To whom payment should be made
Section 79 : Interest when rate specified
Section 80 : Interest when no rate specified
Section 81 : Delivery of instrument on payment or indemnity in case of loss
Chapter: VII
Of Discharge from Liability on notes, Bills and Cheques
Section 82 : Discharge from liability
Section 83 : Discharge by allowing drawee more than forty-eight hours to accept
Section 84 : When cheque not duly presented and drawer damaged thereby
Section 85 : Cheque payable to order
Section 85A : Drafts drawn by one branch of a bank on another payable to order
Section 86 : Parties not consenting discharged by qualified or limited accept­ance
Section 87 : Effect of material alteration
Section 88 : Acceptor or indorser bound notwithstanding previous alteration
Section 89 : Payment of instrument on which alteration is not apparent
Section 90 : Extinguishment of rights of action on bill in acceptor's hands
Chapter: VIII
Of Notice of Dishonour
Section 91 : Dishonour by non-acceptance
Section 92 : Dishonour by non-payment
Section 93 : By and to whom notice should be given
Section 94 : Mode in which notice may be given
Section 95 : Party receiving must transmit notice of dishonour
Section 96 : Agent for presentment
Section 97 : When party to whom notice given is dead
Section 98 : When notice of dishonour is unnecessary
Chapter: IX
Of Noting and Protest
Section 99 : Noting
Section 100 : Protest
Section 101 : Contents of protest
Section 102 : Notice of protest
Section 103 : Protest for non-payment after dishonour by non-acceptance
Section 104 : Protest of foreign bills
Section 104A : When noting equivalent to protest
Chapter: X
Of reasonable time
Section 105 : Reasonable time
Section 106 : Reasonable time of giving notice of dishonour
Section 107 : Reasonable time for transmitting such notice
Chapter: XI
Of Acceptance and Payment for Honour and reference in case of need
Section 108 : Acceptance for honour
Section 109 : How acceptance for honour must be made
Section 110 : Acceptance not specifying for whose honour it is made
Section 111 : Liability of acceptor for honour
Section 112 : When acceptor for honour may be charged
Section 113 : Payment for honour
Section 114 : Right of payer for honour
Section 115 : Drawee in case of need
Section 116 : Acceptance and payment without protest
Chapter: XII
Of Compensation
Section 117 : Rules as to compensation
Chapter: XIII
Special rules of evidence
Section 118 : Presumptions as to negotiable instruments
Section 119 : Presumption on proof of protest
Section 120 : Estoppel against denying original validity of instrument
Section 121 : Estoppel against denying capacity of payee to indorse
Section 122 : Estoppel against denying signature or capacity of prior party
Chapter: XIV
Of Crossed Cheques
Section 123 : Cheque crossed generally
Section 124 : Cheque crossed specially
Section 125 : Crossing after issue
Section 126 : Payment of cheque crossed generally
Section 127 : Payment of cheque crossed specially more than once
Section 128 : Payment in due course of crossed cheque
Section 129 : Payment of crossed cheque out of due course
Section 130 : Cheque bearing "not negotiable"
Section 131 : Non-liability of banker receiving payment of cheque
Section 131A : Application of Chapter to drafts
Chapter: XV
Of Bills in Sets
Section 132 : Set of bills
Section 133 : Holder of first acquired part entitled to all
Chapter: XVI
Of International Law
Section 134 : Law governing liability of maker, acceptor or indorser of foreign instrument
Section 135 : Law of place of payment governs dishonour
Section 136 : Instrument made, etc., out of India, but in accordance with the law of India
Section 137 : Presumption as to foreign law
Chapter: XVII
Of Penalties in case of Dishonour of Certain Cheques for Insufficiency of Funds in the Accounts
Section 138 : Dishonour of cheque for insufficiency, etc., of funds in the account
Section 139 : Presumption in favour of holder
Section 140 : Defence which may not be allowed in any prosecution under section 138
Section 141 : Offences by companies
Section 142 : Cognizance of offences
Section 142A : Validation for transfer of pending cases
Section 143 : Power of Court to try cases summarily
Section 144 : Mode of service of summons
Section 145 : Evidence on affidavit
Section 146 : Bank's slip prima facie evidence of certain facts
Section 147 : Offences to be compoundable
 
 
 
 
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