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AS - 02 - Valuation of Inventories - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... This Standard should be applied in accounting for inventories other than: (a) work in progress arising under construction contracts, including directly related service contracts (see Accounting Standard (AS) 7, Construction Contracts); (b) work in progress arising in the ordinary course of business of service providers; (c) shares, debentures and other financial instruments held as stock-in-trade; and (d) producers’ inventories of livestock, agricultural and forest products, and mineral oils, ores and gases to the extent that they are measured at net realisable value in accordance with well established practices in those industries. 2. The inventories referred to in paragraph 1(d) are measured at net realisable value at certain stages .....

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AS - 02 - Valuation of Inventories - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... ch items are accounted for in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS) 10, Property, Plant and Equipment. Measurement of Inventories 5. Inventories should be valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of Inventories 6. The cost of inventories should comprise all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs of Purchase 7. The costs of purchase consist of the purchase price including duties and taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable by the enterprise from the taxing authorities), freight inwards and other expenditure directly attributable to the acquisition. Trade discounts, rebates, duty drawbacks and other similar items ar .....

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AS - 02 - Valuation of Inventories - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... rmally high production, the amount of fixed production overheads allocated to each unit of production is decreased so that inventories are not measured above cost. Variable production overheads are assigned to each unit of production on the basis of the actual use of the production facilities. 10. A production process may result in more than one product being produced simultaneously. This is the case, for example, when joint products are produced or when there is a main product and a by-product. When the costs of conversion of each product are not separately identifiable, they are allocated between the products on a rational and consistent basis. The allocation may be based, for example, on the relative sales value of each product either at .....

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AS - 02 - Valuation of Inventories - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... ontribute to bringing the inventories to their present location and condition; and (d) selling and distribution costs. Cost Formulas 14. The cost of inventories of items that are not ordinarily interchangeable and goods or services produced and segregated for specific projects should be assigned by specific identification of their individual costs. 15. Specific identification of cost means that specific costs are attributed to identified items of inventory. This is an appropriate treatment for items that are segregated for a specific project, regardless of whether they have been purchased or produced. However, when there are large numbers of items of inventory which are ordinarily interchangeable, specific identification of costs is inappro .....

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AS - 02 - Valuation of Inventories - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... ved, depending upon the circumstances of the enterprise. Techniques for the Measurement of Cost 18. Techniques for the measurement of the cost of inventories, such as the standard cost method or the retail method, may be used for convenience if the results approximate the actual cost. Standard costs take into account normal levels of consumption of materials and supplies, labour, efficiency and capacity utilisation. They are regularly reviewed and, if necessary, revised in the light of current conditions. 19. The retail method is often used in the retail trade for measuring inventories of large numbers of rapidly changing items that have similar margins and for which it is impracticable to use other costing methods. The cost of the inventor .....

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AS - 02 - Valuation of Inventories - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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..... value are based on the most reliable evidence available at the time the estimates are made as to the amount the inventories are expected to realise. These estimates take into consideration fluctuations of price or cost directly relating to events occurring after the balance sheet date to the extent that such events confirm the conditions existing at the balance sheet date. 23. Estimates of net realisable value also take into consideration the purpose for which the inventory is held. For example, the net realisable value of the quantity of inventory held to satisfy firm sales or service contracts is based on the contract price. If the sales contracts are for less than the inventory quantities held, the net realisable value of the excess inve .....

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AS - 02 - Valuation of Inventories - Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2021

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